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Improvement 




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Old Lovers 

"Heart of my heart, when the day was young, 
Hope sang to life with a silver tongue; 
Hope beckoned love down a flowery way, 
Where 'twas always morning and always May, 
And two true lovers need never part — 
Do you remember, heart of my heart? 

'Heart of my heart, when the noon was high, 
Work showed the way we must travel by; 
Duty spoke cold and stern in our ears, 
Bidding us bear all the toil and tears, 
Parting and losses, sorrow and smart — 
Have you forgotten, heart of my heart? 

'Heart of my heart, in the setting sun 

We sit at peace, with our day's work done; 

In the cool of the evening we two look back 

On the winding pathway, the noon's rough track, 

And the morn's green pleasance, where roses twine, 

Heart of my heart — with your hand in mine. 

'Heart of my heart, when the night is here 
Love will sing songs of life in our ear; 
We shall sleep awhile 'neath the daisied grass, 
Till we put on the glory, and rise and pass 
To walk where eternal splendors shine, 
Heart of my heart — with your hand in mine." 

E. NESBIT, in the Argosy. 




PRESIDENT BRIGHAM YOUNG 



Improvement Era 



Vol. XXVIII 



JUNE, 1925 



No. 8 



HISTORIC SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 

First Period 

By Junius F. Wells 

It is the purpose of this article to provide a synoptic sketch 
of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations rather than a 
history of the period dealt with. This period from its beginning, 
1875 to 1898, appears to divide itself into two or perhaps three 

epochs. The first, from the movement 
inaugurated by President Brigham 
Young in 1875 — with an allusion to 
previous organizations — down to the 
establishment of The Contributor and 
the General Superintendency, 1879- 
1880. The second carrying on to the 
development of the General Board, 
1892-3, thence to the suspension of 
The Contributor, 1896, and the death 
of President Wilford Woodruff, 1898. 
The inspiration of the general 
organization of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association was 
from God, expressed by the President 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. It was not derived 
JUNIUS F. WELLS from any other society then in exist- 

As he appeared in 18 75 ence either in or out of the Church. 

It is true that prior to, and at the time of the inauguration of 
the Y. M. M. I. A. there were a number of other societies in existence 
in the Church. They were variously named and were usually or- 
ganized with formal constitutions and by-laws, and governed more or 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act 
of October 3, 1917, authorized on July Z, 1918, $2 per annum. 

Address Room 4 6, Church Office Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 




714 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

less by parliamentary rules. Their object was the social and intel- 
lectual improvement and entertainment of their members, and, in some 
degree, a religious and spiritual element featured their programs. Of 
such societies there was the Twentieth ward Institute, organized Decem- 
ber 30, 1873, whose membership enrolled a notable assembly of the 
literary, dramatic and musical talent of the city. It had a brilliant 
career of several years' duration. Then there was also the popular 
society of the Sixteenth ward; the Sixth ward Instructive Association, 
organized in 1873; the Tenth ward Young Men's Literary Association, 
organized January 12, 1874; the Young Men's Association of the 
Thirteenth ward, organized March 10, 1874, with such names as 
George Goddard, Hamilton G. Park, Joseph Morris, and Joseph E. 
Taylor among the members. There had been a society in the 
Fourteenth ward several years earlier, with the Cannons, Taylors, 
Lamberts and other well known and talented people enrolled. There 
was a very popular society of the Young Folks of Ogden City, 
a virtual combination of the Young Ladies' Association and of a 
Young Men's Association, organized in 1873 by President Franklin 
D. Richards, and presided over by him for several years. In several 
other towns throughout the territory societies had been, or then were, 
in operation. Long anterior to all of these was the Polysophical 
Society organized by Elder Lorenzo Snow in 1854-55; and, before 
that, "The Young Gentlemen's and Young Ladies' Relief Society of 
Nauvoo," organized by direction of Joseph Smith the Prophet, March 
1, 1843. Whatever rivalry, therefore, there might be in claims for 
priority of organization should be relegated to these and other 
societies like them. Upon none of them was the general organization 
inaugurated by President Brigham Young in 1875 built. The 
Y. M. M. I. Association, whose fiftieth anniversary we are celebrating 
in this year of grace 1925, was begun in the following manner: 

On Saturday morning, June sixth, 1875, President Brigham 
Young, upon parting with his second counselor, President Daniel H. 
Wells, sent the following message to me: "Tell Junius that I want 
him to organize the young men." 

A few moments after the delivery of this message, President 
Young, accompanied by Elder George Q. Cannon, departed for Logan, 
Cache county, where two days' meetings had been appointed for that 
day and Sunday. 

The spirit of the work fell upon me from the moment I was 
chosen to undertake it. I seemed at once to know what I should do. 
Nevertheless, I asked my father, and he replied, laconically: "I think, 
if I were in your place I'd do it." After conferring further with 
him I proceeded to arrange for a meeting to be held in the Thirteenth 
ward meetinghouse. That afternoon I saw Bishop E. D. Woolley and 
did so. On the following morning I called upon several of the 
bishops of the Salt Lake City wards and requested them to announce, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 715 

at their ward services, the meeting, to be held Thursday evening, June 
10, 1875, at seven o'clock; requesting their presence and a general 
attendance of the people. It was, of course, the expectation that 
President Young would be present to inaugurate this important 
movement. President Young returned from Cache county on Thurs- 
day morning. I was waiting for him at his office, and reported the 
steps that had been taken for a meeting that night and had the 
following conversation. The President in effect said: 

"We want to have our young men enrolled and organized 
throughout the Church, so that we shall know who and where they 
are, so that we can put our hands upon them at any time for any 
service that may be required. We want them to hold meetings where 
they will stand up and speak — get into the habit of speaking — and 
of bearing testimony. These meetings are to be for our young men, to 
be composed of young men for their improvement — for their mutual 
improvement — a society of young men for mutual improvement. 
There is your name: The Young Men's Mutual Improvement Soci — 
Association." 

I inquired: "What about the officers?" 

President Young: "You should have a president and two 
counselors and a secretary, to call the roll and keep minutes of your 
meetings." 

"And a treasurer?" 

President Young: "Yes, a treasurer." 

"And a librarian?" 

President Young: "Yes and a librarian, when you are ready 
for it. That will be right, to collect good books and encourage reading 
them. And a roll of members. At your meetings you should begin at 
the top of the roll and call upon as many members as there is 
time for to bear their testimonies and at the next meeting begin where 
you left off and call upon others, so that all shall take part and get 
into the practice of standing up and saying something. Many may 
think they haven't any testimony to bear, but get them to stand 
up and they will find the Lord will give them utterance to many 
truths they had not thought of before. More people have obtained 
a testimony while standing up trying to bear it than down on their 
knees praying for it. 

"Your society is not to be for debates — debating on foolish and 
absurd questions, which prove nothing, is a bad practice and leads to 
infidelity. You must not permit it, but avoid contention of every 
kind in your meetings." 

At the end of this interview, observing my dismay when he said 
that he should not be able to attend the meeting, the President turned to 
Elder George Q. Cannon, who was in the office, and said: "I have 
called Junius F. Wells to begin organizing the young men, and he has 
arranged for a meeting this evening in the Thirteenth ward. I do not 
feel well enough to go out this evening. Will it be convenient for 



716 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

you to?" Elder Cannon replied that he would be pleased to, if he 
were at liberty. He thought, however, that there was a meeting of 
his Quorum (the Twelve) at President John Taylor's for that 
evening; he was not sure, but would ascertain and leave word at the 
office. 

Several times in the afternoon I called there and, at last, a few 
minutes before the time set for the meeting, word came from Brother 
Cannon that the previous appointment forbade his attendance. Going 
directly from the President's office down the Theatre hill to the 
Thirteenth ward Assembly Rooms, on Second South, just east 
of State street, I felt the responsibility of the task confronting me 
sensibly; and when I reached the hall and found it filled with people, 
many of whom were expecting to be addressed by President Young, 
it may be readily believed that I was nervous. Upon entering, I found 
Bishop Woolley, and other leading men, seated near the door in the 
southwest corner of the hall. I at once requested the Bishop to come 
to the stand. There were several bishops of city wards and other 
prominent men present, but Bishop Woolley declined, saying it was not 
his meeting and, of course, none of the others would come up. I then 
turned to some of the young men, who had followed me in, and pre- 
vailed on three or four to join me; among these was Elder B. Morris 
Young, lately returned from a mission to the Sandwich Islands, Joseph 
E. Wilson, and perhaps Henry A. Woolley. Brother Charles J. 
Thomas led in a congregational hymn and Brother B. Morris Young 
made the opening prayer. I followed him and spoke fifty minutes, 
covering the points of my interview with President Young, and I 
was the only speaker. At the close of the meeting, I requested those 
who were willing to join' the association to remain, and took down 
eighteen names. From these it was agreed that Henry A. Woolley 
should be president, B. Morris Young and Heber J. Grant, counselors 
and H. H. Goddard, secretary. We were to arrange a time and place 
for future meetings, but several weeks elapsed before this was done, 
I suppose because I was about to go on a long trip, in President 
Young's company, to southern Utah. Regular meetings were not 
commenced until the 19th of August, which was the first meeting 
at which minutes were taken, officers voted for and members began 
to respond to the roll call. (See article: "The Thirteenth Ward 
Y. M. M. I. A." in this number of the Era.) 

At this meeting the house was crowded. I spoke at length, 
and was reported in part by Wilmerth East, as follows: 

"In announcing the object of this meeting I will say, the general 
object is to inaugurate a series of such meetings among the young people 
of this city, while the particular object is to perfect the organization of the 
young men of the Thirteenth ward in a Mutual Improvement Association. 
This is being done at the suggestion, and by the authority of President 
Brigham Young. 

"In connection with a number of other young men, we have met 
together this evening to organize. We feel indebted to the sisters for their 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 717 

attendance tonight. Sister Snow and those associated with her have 
organized the young ladies, and their labors have been crowned with success. 
By meeting together in an organized capacity they have been protected from 
many temptations and snares of the enemies of our people. The only way 
that we can accept the doctrines and follow the teachings of the divines of 
the various religious denominations, who are seeking to lead the youth of our 
people out from their darkness and delusion, as they think, is by breaking the 
fifth commandment, by ignoring the faith that our parents have struggled 
hard to maintain and inculcate in the hearts of their children. 

"I have a mission given to me by President Young, to organize the 
young men, and we intend to visit every ward in this city and accomplish 
the object of our mission. We expect to organize here tonight, with as 
many, or more, members as this Church was organized with in the beginning. 
I will try to explain the main object. We need the cultivation of the 
heart as well as of the mind. It is for us to know, by the gift of the 
Holy Ghost and the spirit of revelation, that this gospel, for which our 
parents have sacrificed and suffered much, is the revealed will of God to 
us as well as to them. Do we remember the fifth commandment? "Honor 
thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the land which the 
Lord thy God giveth thee.' Do we speak lightly of the things of God 
that our parents have taught us are sacred, more sacred and dear to them 
than their lives, and proved by the sacrifices they have made? How many 
of us are willing to sacrifice, as they have done, for the principles designed 
to save and exalt us with them in the kingdom of our Father and God who 
has revealed them? If we are disobedient to our parents and treat lightly 
the principles they have labored so long and faithfully to maintain, are we 
not guilty of breaking the fifth commandment? How many of you, my 
young brethren, realize the responsibilty of seeking unto God, to know for 
yourselves that what your parents have taught you is of God? Do you 
realize that you are surrounded with enemies, the hireling priests who seek 
to ensnare you and lead you from the counsels of your parents whom 
they would destroy, if God would suffer them to do so? This is their 
object and mission here, to overthrow this Church and kingdom, if possible, 
and they expect to accomplish it by the influence they exert over the youth 
of our people. They are not our friends, neither are they the friends of 
God; their motives are false, and their doctrines are false; they seek to destroy 
the priesthood and lead the heirs of the priesthood down to perdition; and 
there is no person who has received the light of the Holy Ghost who can 
believe their doctrines. The only alternative therefore is infidelity. This is 
our fate my brethren, if we suffer ourselves to be led by them from the 
counsels of our parents, and lose the light of the Holy Spirit, we become 
infidels to God. But if we are obedient, we have a right to the Holy Ghost 
which has been conferred upon us, and it will teach us our duty, and by the 
exercise of that gift, we will know truth from error, and light from darkness. 
A German author said, 'Give me the education of the children when young 
and the kingdom is mine.' Now, this is what our enemies know, and they 
seek to establish their seminaries of learning in our midst as well as their 
churches, desiring to educate the children of the Latter-day Saints; con- 
fessing that the aged are beyond their reach; but let them have the children 
to educate and they will accomplish the overthrow of the kingdom of God. 
We can see, then, the necessity of being organized and of living our religion. 
My parents have taught me the truth and so have yours, and no tongue can 
express the gratitude we owe them for their faithfulness. It is my desire to 
honor and defend the principles they have taught me; for I know they have 
done all in their power to educate and prepare me for a life of usefulness. 
Now, I believe I have explained the object of our meeting together this 
evening, to the best of my ability. I pray God to bless our efforts and 
crown them with success." 



718 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

Brother Millen Atwood then spoke for a short time, expressing 
his joy and gratitude, saying for this he had prayed; and would 
rather a son of his felt as Brother Junius Wells did, than to have 
a million dollars. 

About this time President George A. Smith was lying on his death 
bed. He died September 1, 1875. His son John Henry had re- 
turned, August 15, from his mission to England to be with his 
father. I met him frequently at his father's bedside and then began a 
friendship which lasted as long as he lived. He became interested in 
Mutual Improvement and attended and spoke at the meeting in the 
Thirteenth ward held August 23, and later we visited several wards to- 
gether. The day after his father's funeral, September 6, I started with 
a company, led by my father, on a preaching tour of the southern 
settlements. In this company were Elders Lorenzo Snow, F. D. 
Richards, Robert T. Burton and others. We went as far as Kanab 
and St. George. At the latter place I organized a Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association on Sunday evening September 26th, 
with Erastus B. Snow as president, and Graham A. Macdonald as 
secretary. Franklin R. Snow, corresponding secretary. Soon after 
the first meeting Anthony W. Ivins succeeded as a counselor. There 
were seventy members enrolled at the first meeting. 

We returned from the South on the 29th of September, and a 
week later, at the October conference, I was called to go on a mission 
to the eastern states, beginning, however, in Iowa, Missouri and Illinois, 
but reaching New England. Before starting on this mission, I organized 
associations at Brigham City, Mantua, and at two or three other 
places, in the territory, besides certain wards in Salt Lake City. At the 
organization of the association of the First ward Elder Milton H. 
Hardy, who had returned from his misson to England, August 7, 
1875, was present and then became identified with the work in which 
he served so conspicuously for many years. 

I departed upon my mission on November 1, 1875, having 
made a report, before going, to President Young of the beginning and 
progress of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations up 
to that time. 

A few days later the following self-explanatory letter was pre- 
pared. It was given to Brother Morris Young to deliver to the brethren 
named. He did so, calling upon Brother John Henry Smith, who was 
employed at the Utah Central Railway freight office, and at the 
Twelfth ward school where Elder Hardy was teaching: 

Salt Lake City, November 6, 1875. 
Elders J. H. Smith, M. H. Hardy and 

B. M. Young, Salt Lake City. 

Dear brethren: — We have received from Elder Junius F. Wells, a report 
of the organization of Young Men's Associations in some of the wards 
of this city, St. George, in Brigham City, and in other places. It is our 
desire that these institutions should flourish, that our young men may 
grow in the comprehension of, and faith in, the holy principles of the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 



719 




B. Morris Young John Henry Smith Milton H. Hardy 

THE FIRST Y. M. M. I. A. MISSIONARIES— 18 75-1876 

gospel of eternal salvation, and furthermore, have an opportunity to, and 
be encouraged in, bearing testimony to and speaking of, the truths of our 
holy religion. Let the consideration of these truths and principles be the 
ground work and leading idea of every such association; and on this 
foundation of faith in God's great latter-day work, let their members build 
all true knowledge, by which they may be useful in the establishment of his 
kingdom. Each member will find that happiness in this world mainly 
depends on the work he does and the way in which he does it. It now 
becomes the duty of these institutions to aid the holy Priesthood in instruct- 
ing the youth of Israel, in all things commendable and worthy of the 
acceptance of Saints of the Most High God. 

Elder Junius F. Wells, having been called on a mission to preach 
the gospel in the United States, we are desirous that his departur" should 
not stay this important work amongst our young men. We therefore 
desire you to take up and continue the labor of organizing these institutions, 
and we hereby appoint you to this duty and calling. In connection here- 
with we wish you to visit the various portions of the territory as op- 
portunity offers, confer with the bishops and local authorities, and acting in 
unison with them, call meetings, organize institutions or associations, attend 
to the election of officers, and give such instruction as the Spirit of the , 
Lord may inspire and counsel from us may direct. We cordially commend 
you to the brethren throughout these valleys and desire them to aid you 
by their advice and co-operation in all your labors, and we pray God the 
eternal Father to grant you his Spirit in rich abundance, that you may be 
filled with the power of your Priesthood and calling, and that your mouths 
may utter forth words of wisdom whenever you open them to instruct the 
Saints. 

Your brethren in the Gospel, 

(Signed) Brigham Young, 

Daniel H. Wells, 

First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

I cannot do better here than to quote from Elder Hardy's "History 

of the General Organization," which was published in The Contributor, 

Volume 1, 1879-80: This account is authentic and supplies in this 

Jubilee year to the second and third generations of M. I. A. workers, 



720 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

interesting data of many of the associations still in existence, that were 
first organized nearly fifty years ago. It will interest many of the 
present officers to read the names of their fathers and grandfathers who 
preceded them long ago as presidents and counselors and secretaries. 

Elder Milton H. Hardy's Narrative 

"The writer had just arrived in Continental Europe from England, 
at the time the movement to be afterwards known as the 'Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Associations' was inaugurated by the late President 
Brigham Young, in Salt Lake City. He had separated but a few weeks before 
in London, from Elder Junius F. Wells, who, returning home, was ap- 
pointed by President Young to begin the work of organizing societies for 
mutual improvement. Brother Wells called a public meeting in the 
Thirteenth ward, Salt Lake City, on the 10th of June, 1875. The people 
responded, and a large audience awaited his instructions. But no elaborate 
delineation of the movement had yet been made. President Young had ap- 
pointed the man to lead it under the Priesthood, had given him the key note; 
'Mutual Improvement of the youth; establishment of individual testimony 
of the truth and the development of the gifts within them, that have been 
bestowed upon them, by the laying on of the hands of the servants of God;' 
and he rightly expected the work to be accomplished. 

"Without precedent, and without the forms usually characterizing as- 
sociations of an intellectual nature, Brother Wells briefly explained the 
object of the meeting, and with such favor that an association for mutual 
improvement was voted for * * * 

"Following the above letter of appointment these brethren visited the 
remaining wards of Salt Lake City, assisting, where necessary, in completing 
their organizations. In December, 1875, Brothers Hardy and Young visited 
Cache county in the interest of the associations, thus beginning practically 
the territorial traveling missionary work assigned them. The following table 
will show the time of organizing in the several stakes, and the names of the 
officers then chosen : 

CACHE COUNTY 

Logan, Dec. 11, 1875. — Geo. F. Gibbs, president, Chas. W. Nibley and Ezra 
Crockett, counselors; Lyman R. Martineau, secretary. 

Hyde Park, Dec. 26. — Thos. W. Kirby, president; Jno. A. Woolf and 
Edwin Thurmond, counselors; Fredk. Turner, secretary. 

Smithfield, Dec. 2 7. — Saml. T. Henrickson, president; Orrin Merrill and Geo. 
Barber, Jr., counselors; Andrew Anderson, secretary. 

Richmond, Dec. 28. — Alma N. Hobson, president; Wm. Skidmore and Robt. N. 
Lewis, counselors; Edwin Smith, secretary. 

Franklin, Dec. 29. — Thos. Durant, president; LaFayette Hatch and Wm. 
Parkinson, counselors; Leonidas Meakim, secretary. 

Mendon, Dec. 3 0. — -Jno. Donaldson, president; Alexander Richards and Jno. 
Hughes, counselors; Hyrum Richards, secretary. 

After visiting the southern counties they returned to Cache in July, 18 76, 
and organized at, 

Wellsville, July 13. — Jno. B. Hills, president; Ellis Salisbury and James 
Spence, counselors; Jos. Howell, secretary. 

Paradise, organized by the bishop, on April 3 0, 18 76. — Orson Smith, presi- 
dent; James Hurst and Henry A. Shaw, counselors; Gideon Olson, secretary. 

Hyrum, July 14. — Jas. E. Fogg, president; Lehi Curtis and J. C. Thoreson, 
counselors; J. S. Allen, secretary. 

Millville, July 17. — James Neve, president; Francis Cottrell and James Hovey, 
counselors; Jay Pitkin, secretary. 

BOX ELDER COUNTY 

Call's Fort, Dec. 5, 1875. — Heber Loveland, president; Thos. Wheatley and 
Don Loveland, counselors; Robt. Anglesey, secretary. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 721 

Bear River City, Jan. 1, 18 76. — Jos. P. Anderson, president; Nephi P. 
Anderson, James Hansen, counselors; Peter Hansen, secretary. 

Mantua, organized Oct. 21, 18 75, by Junius F. Wells. — Peter Jensen, presi- 
dent; Andrew C. Anderson and Jas. P. Ibsen, counselors; Martin J. Chirstensen, 
secretary. 

At this point it will be of interest to introduce the following 
letter explaining the practical retirement of Elder John Henry Smith, 
who had been called to preside as bishop of the Seventeenth ward: 

Salt Lake City, Utah, March 16, 1876. 

Editor Deseret News: — Elder Junius F. Wells having gone on his mis- 
sion. Brothers M. H. Hardy and B. M. Young and myself were appointed by 
the Presidency of the Church to act as missionaries, in organizing and putting 
in order Young Mens' Mutual Improvement Associations throughout the 
territory. The wards in this city and a majority of the settlements in the 
northern counties have been organized, principally by Brothers Hardy and 
Young, and are in a healthy condition. I have been unable to take part 
but seldom, owing to a press of other duties. Our labors up to the 
present have been attended with success, and we have bright prospects for 
the future. 

Brothers Hardy and Young are making a tour through Utah, Juab 
and Sanpete counties for the purpose above mentioned, and I recommend 
them to the Saints as good men, and filled with a desire to do good to 
the young men of the places they may visit. 

The societies already organized will please address communications to 
M. H. Hardy, Salt Lake City. 

Yours truly, 

John Henry Smith. 

UTAH COUNTY 

They made a tour of Utah County, holding meetings and organizing in the 
following order: 

Lehi, March 8, 18 76; American Fork, March 10; Alpine, March 11; 
Pleasant Grove, March 12; Provo, March 13; Springville, March 14; Spanish 
Fork, March 15; Salem, March 16; Payson, March 17; Santaquin, March 18; 
Goshen, March 19. 

JUAB COUNTY 

Mona, March 20, 18 76; Nephi, March 21; Levan, April 2. 

SANPETE COUNTY 

Fountain Green, March 22, 1876; Wales, March 23; Moroni, March 24; 
Mount Pleasant, March 25; Fairview, March 26; Spring City, March 2 7; Ephraim, 
March 28; Manti, March 29; Gunnison, March 31; Fayette, April 1. 

They returned to Salt Lake City, having held twenty-eight meetings in 
twenty-six days, visiting twenty-four settlements, four Sabbath and eleven 
day schools. 

April 8, 1876, the first general conference of the Y. M. M. I. 
Association was held in the Old Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, John Henry 
Smith, Milton H. Hardy and B. Morris Young personally representing the 
Associations so far as they had been established. Remarks were made by 
President D. H. Wells, and Apostle Wilford Woodruff. A statistical report 
was presented, showing the name, time of organization, by whom organized, 
president's name, number of members, and foundation for libraries. M. H. 
Hardy was sustained as territorial secretary, as a step towards a territorial 
organization. The number of associations, as far asjearned, had increased 



722 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 




Richard W. Young 
Assistant Secretary 



John Nicholsen 
Secretary 

OFFICERS OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE, 1876 



George F. Gibbs 
Corresponding Secretary 



to fifty-seven, with an approximate membership of one thousand two hundred. 
Immediately after conference, Brothers M. H. Hardy and B. M. Young 
continued their travels, with a view of personally representing the move- 
ment in all the counties, traveling and holding public meetings in the follow- 
ing order: 

MILLARQ COUNTY 

Scipio, April 21, 18 76; Holden, April 22; Fillmore, April 23; Meadow, 
April 24; Kanosh, April 25. 

BEAVER COUNTY 

Beaver, April 2 7, 18 76; Greenville, April 28; Adamsville, April 29; Minersville. 
May 1. 

IRON COUNTY 



Paragoonah, May 2, 18 76; Parowan, May 3; 
May 5. 

KANE COUNTY 



Summit, May 4; Cedar City, 



Kanarra, May 6, 1876; Harmony, May 7. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY 
Hebron, May 8, 1876; Pinto and Hamblin, May 9; Pine Valley, May 10. 

From Pine Valley they went to St. George, where they represented the 
associations at the conference, held in the St. George Tabernacle, May 12 and 13, 
1876. 

Continuing their tour Brothers Hardy and Young visited, on their return trip, 
the east line of settlements: — Commencing at Camp Lorenzo, May 18, 1876; back 
to Santa Clara on the 21, thence to Washington, 22; Harrisburg, 23; and Leeds, 
24. Thence to, 

EAST KANE COUNTY 

Visiting Toker, May 2 5, 1876; Virgin, 26; Rockville, 28; Shonesburg, 30; 
Mt. Carmel, June 1; Glendale, 2; Orderville, 3; Kanab, 7; Johnson, 8. Returning to, 

EASTERN IRON COUNTY 
Visited Hillsdale on June 10; 18 76; Panguitch, 11. Thence to, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 723 

SEVIER COUNTY 

Monroe on June 14, 18 76; Joseph, 15; Elsinore, 16; Glen wood, 17; Pratt- 
ville, 1£; to Richfield same day; Salina, 19. 

Through Southern Sanpete to Mayfield on the 20th, Gunnison again on the 
21st. Thence to Salt Lake City, arriving on the 24th. They had traveled one 
thousand and twenty-five miles, walking one hundred and seventy-one miles, visiting 
fifty-six villages, holding fifty-four meetings, effecting twenty-four organizations, 
visiting seventeen associations already organized, and ten schools, occupying sixty- 
six days. 

In July following, a northern tour was arranged by the same brethren, visiting 
the villages in the following order: 

ONEIDA COUNTY, IDAHO 
Mound Valley, July 19, 18 76, and Soda Springs on the 20th. Thence up the 
Bear River through 

BEAR LAKE COUNTY, IDAHO 

To Georgetown, July 22, 1876; Paris, 23; Bennington, 25; Montpelier, 26; 
Ovid, 2 7; Liberty, same day; Bloomington, 29; St. Charles, 30; Fish Haven, 31; 
Swan Creek, August 1. Through 

WESTERN RICH COUNTY, UTAH 

To Laketown, August 2, 1876; Meadowville, 3; via Blacksmith Fork 
to Hyrum, Cache County, thence to Brigham City, Box Elder County, and 
Farmington, Davis County, thence to Salt Lake City. They made in twenty- 
seven days, four hundred and sixty miles, visiting twenty-one villages, holding 
twenty public meetings, organizing eleven associations and visiting seven 
already organized. During the time of these tours, Secretary M. H. Hardy, 
left with the associations, and sent by mail, upwards of sixteen dozen 
tracts and pamphlets on the First Principles of the Gospel. 

This concluded the first general movement, in which public meetings 
were held in various cities, towns and villages of the Saints. 

Distinct organizations of the Young Men were effected, and the plainest 
character of exercises presented and recommended. Centers for collections 
for cabinets were established in five prominent and intermediate districts; 
tracts on the first principles of the gospel were left with the various associa- 
tions; and the subjects: "Acquiring individual testimony of the divinity 
of the mission of Joseph Smith;" "Why we have gathered from the nations 
to these valleys;" "The works and hardships of our fathers;" "Our citizen- 
ship in the government and kingdom of God;" "The privileges we enjoy by 
reason of the faithful, sacrificing, heroic acts of our parents;" and the 
establishment of libraries were made prominent. Weekly class work, monthly 
joint sessions, and serial lectures were begun. 

I returned from my mission to the Eastern States on November 20, 
1876, and at once resumed activity in the association work. At the 
general conference, in October, Elder John W. Young was sustained 
as first counselor to his father in the First Presidency of the Church. 
He at once became interested in the Mutual Improvement Associations, 
and suggested the organization of a Central Organization. President 
Brigham Young soon after conference departed for the South to spend 
the winter in completing the St. George temple and preparing for its 
dedication in the following April. I will here observe that, partly 
on account of ill health forbidding his attendance at evening meetings, 
increased cares and responsibilities owing to vexatious lawsuits insti- 
gated by his enemies, his anxiety to complete the stake organizations 



724 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 




Mathoni W. Pratt 
Treasurer 



Rodney C. Badger 
2nd Counselor 



Benj. F. Cummings, Jr. 
Secretary 

OFFICERS OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE, 18 76 — 1880 



of the Church and to finish and dedicate the first temple to be built in 
the mountains, President Young found no opportunity to pay much at- 
tention to the Mutual Improvement Associations. After my first inter- 
view with him, in June 1875, I had several conversations, while travel- 
ing with him and at his office. But I do not think that he ever attended 
a meeting of the associations. He knew of their work, however, and 
commended it. The last long interview I had with him was at 
Richfield, on our way from St. George, in April, 1877. It covered 
association work and my missionary experiences in England and 
America, and abounded in his personal experiences as a missionary in 
England in 1840-41. I shall never forget the intense interest and 
great delight of this conversation which lasted nearly two hours at the 
home of his son Joseph A., at Richfield, Sevier county, Utah. 

The Central Committee 

The Central Committee, as stated, was called into being at the 
instance of President John W. Young. The first call was published in 
the Deseret News, November 29, 1876, as follows: 

"Y. M. M. I. A. All the officers and members of the various Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Associations of Salt Lake City and adjacent 
wards are requested to meet Friday evening at 7 o'clock in the Council 
House. The meeting is for the purpose of effecting a central organization." 

On the day following this meeting the Deseret News published an 
account of the proceedings under the caption: 

An Excellent Movement 

Agreeable to a published call, a number of the officers of the various 
Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations of the city convened in the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 725 

Council House last evening, the object of the meeting being to take steps 
towards effecting a territorial Central Organization for the receiving of 
reports and the transaction of general business connected with this excellent 
movement. President John W. Young of the First Presidency was present 
and conducted the proceedings. Addresses on the subject under considera- 
tion were delivered by Elders Junius F. Wells, John Nicholson, W. C. Dunbar, 
President John W. Young and Bishop John Henry Smith, all of whom 
expressed their hearty approval of measures and organizations which had 
in view the moral, religious, and intellectual improvement of the young 
people of Israel who are destined to perform an active and conspicuous part 
in the work of God in the latter-times. A unanimous opinion was also 
expressed that the organizing and maintenance of a Central Committee, to 
be at the head of the movement would give fresh vigor and renewed 
impetus to the cause, and tend to make the interest in it permanent. 

That all the young men connected with the various improvement as- 
sociations, and also those who are not now, but are desirous of being identified 
with them, should have full notification, the meeting was adjourned till next 
Friday evening (Dec. 8) at 7 o'clock at the same place, when it is expected 
the contemplated organization will be effected. 

The following reminder was published on December 7th: 

"Officers and members of the Y. M. M. I. Associations of the city 
and adjacent wards and all other young men interested should keep in mind 
the meeting for a central organization at the Council House tomorrow 
night at seven o'clock." 

(The Council House occupied the corner where the Deseret News 
building now stands.) 

Elder John Nicholson, who had been elected secretary, contributed to the 
Deseret News the following synopsis of the adjourned meeting: 

Mutual Improvement Association 

The adjourned meeting of officers and members of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Associations, for the purpose of effecting a central or- 
ganization for the territory, to stand as the head of the entire movement, was 
held last night at the Council House, a goodly representation from the 
various societies of the city being in attendance. 

John Henry Smith was unanimously elected temporary chairman and 
John Nicholson, secretary. 

The chairman briefly stated the object of the meeting, reviewed some 
of the labors of himself, Junius F. Wells, Milton H. Hardy and B. Morris 
Young in organizing Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations in the 
territory, dwelt on the necessity of a central committee, to keep the interest 
alive and declared himself heart and soul in the movement, as it was a 
most commendable and necessary work, the leading object of which was to 
make the youth among the Latter-day Saints well informed and in every 
way creditable representatives of the kingdom of God. 

A permanent Central Organization being in order, the following officers 
were unanimously elected: President, with authority to choose two 
counselors, Junius F. Wells; Secretary, John Nicholson; Assistant Secretary, 
Richard W. Young; Corresponding Secretary, George F. Gibbs. 

A few remarks were made on the importance of the steps taken for 
improvement of the youth, by Dr. W. H. H. Sharp, and he was followed 
in a spirited and instructive address from the president, Junius F. Wells, who 
stated the paramount object of the whole movement to be to aid in placing 
the youth of Israel in perfect accord with the truths of the everlasting gospel 
and consequently the will of God in building up his kingdom. Any society 
organized for the benefit of the young among the Saints, which had this 



726 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 




William S. Burton 
Treasurer 



Orson F. Whitney 
Secretary and Treasurer 



Nephi W. Clayton 
Secretary 



OFFICERS OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

object in view and the sustaining of the authorities of the Church was, in his 
opinion, entitled to representation in the Central Board, which would not. 
of itself, be a society for engaging in exercises for mutual improvement? of its 
members, but would be an active, working committee, for the reception and 
transmission of correspondence between itself and the various associations 
throughout the territory, and also, under the direction and counsel of the 
authorities of the Church, to keep up a missionary connection with the 
various organizations; in fact, to transact all necessary business for the 
furtherance and attainment of the objects of the movement. 

On motion, it was unanimously agreed that the president of each of the 
improvement associations in the Territory be a member of the Central 
Organization, and that, in case of being unable to attend its deliberations 
personally, he have authority to send a representative from the association 
over which he presides. 

The meeting then adjourned sine die, after Saturday evening the 16th 
inst. at seven o'clock at the Council House, being appointed as the time for 
+he first meeting of the Central Organization. The presidents of the various 
societies of the city and adjacent wards are particularly and cordially re- 
quested to be present, as active measures will then be taken for the 
furtherance of the objects of the movement. 

John Nicholson, Secretary. 

Central Organization: The officers and members of the Central 
Organization of the Y. M. M. I. Association, which includes the 
president of every branch society of that nature in the territory, are 
reminded that their first meeting for active business takes place to- 
morrow evening, at the Council House at 7 o'clock. It is desirable 
that there should be a large attendance. 

Among the first acts of the Central Committee was the calling 
of several young men as missionaries. A circular letter of general in- 
structions was prepared for their guidance and sent out to all associa- 
tions then in existence. The following is a copy: 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 727 

An Address 

To the Officers and Members of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 

Associations Throughout the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

Dear Brethren: — On the 8th day of December, 1876, by the direct 
counsel of the First Presidency of the Church, the Central Committee of the 
Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations, was organized, at the 
Council House, Salt Lake City, with the following officers: 

President, with authority to choose two Counselors, Junius F. Wells; 
Secretary, John Nicholson; Assistant Secretary, Richard W. Young; Cor- 
responding Secretary, George F. Gibbs; Treasurer, Mathoni W. Pratt; M. H. 
Hardy and Rodney C. Badger having also been subsequently selected by 
President J. F. Wells, to be his Counselors. 

One of the objects for organizing the committee was that it might act 
at the head of all the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations 
throughout the Church, as a body of reference that could be applied to for 
information relative to the management and conduct of the several societies 
coming within its purview. 

As will be seen by the following letter, the committee is authorized to 
call missionaries, which it has already done to some extent. 

Salt Lake City, U. T., Februray 16, 1877. 
To the Central Committee of the Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Associations: 

Junius F. Wells, President; John Nicholson, Secretary. 
Dear Brethren: — It is very desirable that you call missionaries from the 
associations under your direction, as often as possible, to visit the various 
wards and settlements throughout the territory; in this way giving to our 
young brethren the great privilege of bearing testimony to the truths of the 
gospel and enjoying its spirit, while they gain an experience as teachers of 
its divine principles. 

Praying the Lord to abundantly bless all your labors amongst the 
youth of God's people, 

We remain your brethren in the gospel, 
John W. Young, 
Daniel H. Wells. 

The membership of the Central Committee is composed of the officers 
above named as having been elected, also the presidents of the several associa- 
tions throughout the Church, and all brethren called to act as missionaries in 
forwarding the interests of mutual improvement. 

When the missionaries of this committee visit places where associations 
do not already exist, it is their business to organize the young men. 

The committee submit for the acceptance of the several associations 
the following suggestions — 

The officers of each association should consist of a president, two 
counselors, a secretary, corresponding secretary, treasurer, and, when necessary, 
a labrarian. 

All meetings of the associations should be opened and closed with 
prayer. 

A constitution and by-laws may be profitably adopted, but they 
should invariably be simple in form, as brief as possible, and suited to the 
circumstances and requirements of the several associations. 

Those whose duty it is to conduct the exercises, should seek diligently 
to be influenced by the Spirit of the Lord, that they may act in wisdom. 

Only sufficient parliamentary rules, if any, should be adhered to for the 
expediting of business. 



728 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

The associations should further the progress of moral, religious and 
intellectual culture among all classes and especially among the young. 

Sobriety, virtue and general good behavior and deportment should 
be among the qualifications necessary for continued membership. 

The exercises should be such as will prepare the young people to 
promote the interests of the work of the Lord, and may be of a suf- 
ficiently diversified character to render them interesting. 

The greater portion of the time at meetings should be devoted to 
seeking to receive and impart a better and more extended acquaintance with 
the principles of the gospel. 

It should be considered the duty of all who have not yet received a 
testimony of the truth of the gospel, to take steps to obtain it, and generally 
a portion of time in the meetings should be devoted to bearing testimony 
to the truth of the work of God. 

The handing in of written questions, by members, on suitable sub- 
jects and the allotment of the same, for answer, to other members is a 
commendable exercise. 

The exercises may consistently include the delivering of brief addresses, 
the writing and reading of essays, readings, and recitations, interspersed with 
a song or hymn. 

Each member assigned to deliver an address, write an essay, give a 
reading, answer a question, perform a mission, or any duty connected with the 
association to which he belongs, should consider himself in duty bound 
to make diligent research and preparation to acquit himself to the best of his 
ability therein. 

Debates, being, in the opinion of this committee, contrary to the com- 
mandment to "have no disputations among you," are in opposition to the 
spirit and genius of this mission of mutual improvement. They neces- 
sitate the frequent reasoning from false premises, and, for other reasons, 
they should be entirely excluded from the exercises of the associations. 

Libraries should be formed, and the collection of cabinets of natural 
curiosities encouraged. 

That the permanency of the associations may be secured, their meetings 
should be held once a week, during the winter, and at least once a month 
in summer. 

It is deemed the imperative duty of all the members of associations 
coming under the purview of this Central Committee to sustain all the 
constituted authorities, institutions and principles of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, with their faith, prayers and good works. 

Each association should immediately forward to the corresponding 
secretary of this committee, George F. Gibbs, Salt Lake City, a report, giving 
the date of the organization, how and by whom organized, the names of the 
officers then elected, also a complete list of the present officers and mem- 
bers; also state the nature of the exercises, and what foundation, if any. 
you have for a library, together with such other facts as you may deem of 
intcnst to the committee. A quarterly report, showing the progtess and 
condition of each association, should be forwarded to the Central Committee, 
dated January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1 of each year. As it is 
intended by the Central Committee, to keep a general roll of the members 
of all the associations, the quarterly reports should show the attendance 
of the members, that the status of each may be known. 

Signed, in behalf of the Ceneral Committee, 
Junius F. Wells, President. 
John Nicholson, Secretary. 

In conclusion of this first instalment of my sketch, it will hasten 
the narrative to say that Elder Nicholson's varied duties (he was editor 



HISTORIC SKETCH OF THE Y. M. M. I. A. 729 

of the Deseret News, at the time) forbade much activity as secretary 
of the committee. He resigned the office on November 17, 1877, and 
was succeeded by Elder B. F. Cummings, Jr. 

Elder Cummings was an energetic and useful officer. He was an 
excellent speaker. He traveled extensively, holding many inspired 
meetings and stimulating the interest of officers and members to a 
notable degree. His term as secretary, however, was not long, as he 
was soon called into genealogical work and took his departure on that 
service for New England. He resigned, April 5, 1879. At the same 
time Elder Mathoni W. Pratt., the first treasurer of the Central Com- 
mittee, retired from the not very onerous duties of that office. Elder 
Orson F. Whitney was chosen to succeed him and Elder Cummings, in 
the dual office of secretary and treasurer. 

(To be continued.) 



Dad 

(With apology to Riley's "Jim") 

Dad didn't have very much to say, 
Especially when I went away, 
Except to drop a tear and say, 

"Well, Son, take care o' yourself." 

And when he put within my hand 
A slender book — yes, Dad was grand — 
A check-book, yes, you understand, 
"Well, Son, take care o' yourself." 

And that was just his way you know, 
He never wrote a letter; no. 
Just told mother to say, "Hello," 
And, "Son, take care o' yourself." 

I suppose it's just the way with dads. 
So don't forget them, never, lads; 
Although they're not so struck on fads 
They'll say, "Take care o' yourself." 

And when I write to father now. 
It's like a prayer, you know, somehow; 
And like an answer when we bow, 
I hear, "Son, take care o' yourself." 
Hawaii ORA HAVEN BARLOW 



M. I. A. IN MUSIC 

By Professor Evan Stephens 

When the Lord wishes to direct his people into certain paths 
of progress, his favorite mode of procedure seems to be not so much to 
thunder his commands from the mountains of clouds, as he once did to 
his people Israel, for his own good purposes, or perhaps because of the 
hardness of their hearts at the time, but he more often gives his children 
the benefit and joy of accomplishing the work, by his aid, in a way less 
spectacular, but no less effective. Some quiet, unknown man or woman 
is unconsciously attuned into a fit instrument for the work. An 
intense desire is in some simple, natural way created in the person to 
accomplish something in this line or that. As the person or persons 
pursue the desired paths, more and more grows the desire and the joy 
in the labors of pursuit; more and more dawns upon their vision the 
possibilities and the desirableness of accomplishment, until it becomes a 
burning fire of passion, warming the heart and soul of the devotees, 
and constantly, awake or asleep, urging to their minds plans and means 
leading to the ultimate accomplishment of first one thing and then 
more, all tending to the ultimate aim of the great guiding hand. And 
lo! some fine day, apparently directly or indirectly, through the 
fruits of the labors of these inspired persons a people are found to have 
attained, to a more or less perfect degree, that particular goal and 
purpose desired by the Lord. 

Our musical status as a community has been peculiarly attained 
after this manner, through the unaccounted for efforts of a tew who 
seemed especially called to lead us out of the wilderness of musical 
silence to a land of crystal streams of melody, harmony and vocal and 
instrumental utterance. As a people in a marvelous way, placed as we 
have been in .what might seem the most unfavorable condition, have we 
become eminently a musical community, now recognized as such the 
world over. Nowhere else are church choirs so universal as in the 
"Mormon" Church, and nowhere else perhaps are homes so well 
supplied with musical instruments, and singing so generally indulged in 
by the masses, as in the Rocky mountain regions. 

That the M. I. A., an organization containing the flower of 
the community's young men and women, would bring the use of "The 
Divine Art" prominently" into its activities is and was but natural. 
But in its earlier years it was content to borrow its materials and ideals 
mostly from its companion organization, the Sabbath School, and 
the regular singing part of its meetings was confined to a haphazard 
mode of joining together in singing some well-known Sabbath School 
song or hymn tunes, with selections from one or more of the local 
soloists interjected between other exercises. It must be confessed that 



M. I. A. IN MUSIC 731 

to a greater or less extent, this is still the practice. But ideals and arms 
of a much higher and broader scale have long since been placed 
before us, wherein an uplift into real artistic and characteristic im- 
provement holds out an inviting hand to the musical uplifters in 
our great community. The artistic charm and culture of enjoying 
the hearing of fine choirs of male voices, and ladies' voices, separate 
and apart from each other, has been demonstrated, and the participation, 
and training in such beautiful art-effects have been partly placed be- 
fore us, and even rwow awaits further development and general practice 
to become general, and to take their place side by side with the usual 
mixed chorus of church choirs. 

This feature of musical work and improvement took form about 
forty years ago, and especially upon the arrival of the writer who in 
the 80's was made musical director of the M. I. A. and held the posi- 
tion for many years, until by his own urgent requests to be released, 
for specified reasons which later in this history will be explained, his 
resignation was regretfully accepted. He at once saw keenly, indeed 
had long, while in obscurity he was toiling as a day laborer in the little 
town of Willard, Box Elder county, foreseen and fondly dreamed not 
only of our possibilities but of realization, as paragraphs from an article 
written by him in The Contributor in the year 1881-82, "A Musical 
Dream" will show. An ideal as yet only partly reached by us, but 
under his direction in those early years, 80's and 90's, put into 
wonderfully successful application. (See Lecture by Evan Stephens, 
Contributor, page 262, Vol. 9, Musical Competition. See page 199, 
Vol. 12, year 1891. Also account of special music at M. I. A. Con- 
ference, June 1, 1891. See also in this Volume an account of a great 
musical festival held in the Tabernacle; also note the instrumental 
music section of these contests, how it included orchestra, contest, 
military band, brass bands, and various solo instruments, and similar 
special programs to create and promote a continued advancement in 
M. I. A. music are to be noted in connection with the M. I. A; 
Conference of 1892. 

The activities especially covered the promoting of male voice 
choirs and quartets, ladies' choirs and quartets, mixed voice choirs, 
duet and trio singing, as well as solos of every variety, orchestra and 
band organizations in instrumental solos of all best sorts; the use of 
mostly home compositions, for which place was made under the super- 
vision of George D. Pyper in each number of The Contributor — all 
told, these activities made Salt Lake City to be considered "The 
musical center" in the intermountain and Pacific slope. It is but 
just to mention that the activities of the reorganized Tabernacle choir, 
The Salt Lake Choral Society (interdenominational), the Stephens 
Opera Co., the Deseret University music department, the music in the 
city school department, as well as other local small organizations, not 
forgetting the Anton Pederson's symphony orchestra and military band, 



732 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

added to the Tabernacle concerts where the world's greatest artists 
made a visit appearance with the choir; the music for the great 
temple dedication, and finally, the choir's great victory at the World's 
Fair, 1893 — all served to make complete this really notable musical 
awakening, at the root of which was our church music and the 
cooperative activities of the M. I. A., and further that interwoven 
with it, all the popular "Stephens' Music Classes," numbering two and 
three thousand children and young people. The movement went as a 
flash of activity and progress through the entire community from 
Mexico on the south to Canada on the north, and correspondingly from 
east to west. And our great task ever since has been to live up as 
near as we may, to the great reputation made in this time of sowing, 
in which the M. I. A. took a notable and effective part. Let it here, 
too, be recorded that as chief promoter of the M. I. A. portion of it, 
Elder Junius F. Wells stood out in bold relief, an intelligent, en- 
thusiastic advocate and leader, to whom the musical chief, Stephens, 
could look up for support in planning and putting into practice 
every beneficial move to the M. I. A. The "high tide" of this work 
came and to some degree may be said to have passed by in the early 
90's, but the waves have never been permitted to recede far from the 
high mark set at this time. 

As Evan Stephens gradually transferred his entire efforts to the 
Tabernacle choir, whose activities spread even into tours from coast 
to coast, others were called to continue the M. I. A.'s musical 
activities. The contest portions in charge of Elder Oscar A. Kirkham 
have included several double quartets and other musical contests, first 
in stake capacity and the finals at Salt Lake City during the annual 
conferences, and later still, Elder B. Cecil Gates has been appointed 
director of the Young Men, with Miss Margaret Summerhays for the 
Young Ladies, and later, Mrs. Evangeline Thomas Beesley. New 
life and material for use has of recent years been given through the Era 
publishing a male chorus in nearly every number, and for some years 
the Young Woman's Journal doing likewise for ladies' voices. The 
Boy Scout section too has been remembered, and special numbers for 
boys written and published in the Era. These efforts have placed 
suitable selections in a number of small volumes, the first being a 
collection for M. I. A. and missionaries, compiled by Evan Stephens, 
followed recently by twenty-four choruses for men and boys, taken 
from the Improvement Era numbers and a similar booklet of twenty 
numbers from the Young Woman's Journal for ladies, thus starting a 
library of suitable music for the M. I. A. of the Church — a most im- 
portant factor; as, after all, without suitable material upon which to 
feed or work, our efforts must languish and gradually die out. As it is, 
and has been, we are fairly in a position to bear up and promote our 
share in the musical progress of the great work in which we are 
engaged. 



THE HERITAGE AND PROMISE 

By John Henry Evans, 
Author of "One Hundred Years of Mormonism" 

Part II 

VII 

A great deal has been said already in the sections of this division 
about the religious ideals of the Latter-day Saints. But this has been 
incidentally. It is time now for us to collect these loose threads and 
to tie them together, adding such other threads as may be necessary, 
in order to show that the youth of "Mormondom" have grown and 
are growing up in such an atmosphere as tends to give them a decided 
bent towards the things of the spirit. 

What is the matter with the world to-day? And what is the 
matter with our own country? 

We have just passed through the most devastating war of all 
time, beside which the wars of "barbarous days" pale into insignifi- 
cance. And the nations of the world, our own included, are actually 
preparing for another war, in spite of the obvious fact that if that 
war ever does come it will sweep the earth almost clean of its inhabi- 
tants, and few will be left to tell the tale. The idea of "self-deter- 
mination" is establishing new nations, and therefore new rivalries. No 
power under heaven, it would seem, can induce the distracted peoples 
of Europe to "talk things over" with one another, with a view to 
settling their difficulties. They would probably resort to war again, 
but for the fact of their utter exhaustion from the last one. Not 
Christianity, but paganism, is at the helm. There are no Christian 
nations to-day any more than there were in Gladstone's time. Have at 
each other's throat! — this is the slogan with every nation. So far 
from reaching the period of universal brotherhood, our intense spirit 
of nationalism, accentuated by the war, is driving the world farther 
and farther in the opposite direction. 

And what of our own country? Lawlessness, dishonesty, greed, 
bribery, political corruption — these are characteristics of our times in 
America. We would rather have our glass of beer than transmit to 
our children an orderly government. "A very prominent and con- 
servative university president recently said in public that the present 
age is the most decadent in history, with the exception of the days just 
before the fall of the Roman Republic and before the French Revolu- 
tion. He mentioned 'dishonesty, permeating public and private life 
alike, tainting the administration of justice, tainting our legislative 
halls, tainting the conduct of private business, polluting at times even 
the church itself.' In the same utterance he averred that 'a source of 
infinite evil in every modern society is impurity of word and act.' He 



734 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

went on to assert that 'if there is to be social and political regenera- 
tion in our Republic and in the rest of the world, it must be by a tre- 
mendous regeneration of moral ideals.' " 

The trouble with America, as with the world, is that it is fol- 
lowing false gods. Our whole civilization, in the view of Professor 
Ellwood, is semi-pagan — semi-pagan in its politics, because it prefers 
power to justice; semi-pagan in its business, because it chooses self- 
interest to service; semi-pagan in its literature, because it either derides 
or ignores the Christian ideal of life. This is a hard saying, but none 
will dispute it with the facts before him. We are materialistic in this 
country. We worship the dollar, since the dollar stands for power 
and pleasure. Money has become the measure of all values — spiritual 
as well as carnal. Money being the chief object of concern, there is 
absolutely nothing that men and women will not do to possess it. An 
enormous greed for wealth has grown up, which threatens to over- 
whelm us. For a moment, during the war, the American nation rose 
to spiritual heights in its effort to "make the world safe for democracy," 
but the very next moment it relapsed into a materialism lower than 
that out of which it rose for the instant. 

Only one thing can redeem this nation and the world, and that 
is repentance and a new life of the spirit. It is no mere coincidence 
that at the same time the world has been gaining in corruption it has 
been losing what little religion it had. There never was a time in the his- 
tory of our nation when the tide of religion wtes at so low an ebb, 
when it counted for so little in its thought and deed. "Not only has 
the proportion of nominal believers declined, but even among those 
who believe the intensity of belief is enormously diminished." It is 
even worse than that. The very men whose duty it is to teach religion 
— the clergy — have themselves but an indifferent, luke-warm belief in 
the divinity of what they teach. Senator Beveridge discovered through 
a questionnaire that the younger preachers do not believe in a per- 
sonal God, a definite and tangible intelligence, nor in Jesus Christ as 
the Son of God, nor in a hereafter where people live as a conscious 
intelligence and know one another. And then he says, "How can such 
priests of ice warm the souls of men? How can such apostles of in- 
terrogation convert a world?" Faith is power. Religion is more 
than a meaningless form; it is the warp and woof of our being. Ac- 
cording to Professor Ellwood, religion furnishes us with an ultimate 
standard of values; it "acts as an agency of social control;" it estab- 
lishes in the individual a desire to subordinate his own for the welfare 
of the group; and it creates and fosters hope in the ultimate triumph 
of the right, thus setting up a spiritual ideal. No mere philosophy, 
certainly no Godless creed, can do these four things for man. Let re- 
ligion again take hold of the world, and it will repeat the incredible 
things done by it in the past. 

Now, the "Mormon" youth are reared in an atmosphere sur- 
charged with religion. Let us briefly recapitulate. 



THE HERITAGE AND PROMISE 735 

Man is a dual being. He consists of a spirit, which is external, 
and a body, which is earthly. This spirit existed before the body, 
exists in the body now, will exist when the body is dust again, and 
will be reunited with it in the resurrection. His is therefore a con- 
tinuous life, running from eternity through time into eternity. God 
is Father of this spirit, and Jesus Christ is its elder Brother. All 
spiritual laws are given of God in the light of this eternal existence of 
man. The gospel is a collection of the basic truths, obedience to which 
is to effect the salvation of the soul; that is, the placing of man beyond 
the power of all his enemies, here and hereafter. All men are to be 
saved from the "fall" of Adam through the death of Christ, and from 
the effects of their own sin through their adherence to the plan of 
salvation, the gospel. Men and women are to be saved together, not 
separately. This earth, after it has lived its span and been renewed, 
is to be man's eternal abode after the resurrection, where he will not 
only live a conscious life but a social life as well, surrounded by loved 
ones. 

The fact that the Latter-day Saints pay a great deal of attention 
to getting on in this life is often interpreted to mean that their relig- 
ious philosophy is materialistic. This idea receives apparent confirma- 
tion in their views of the Spirit of God, and of the future life. Well, 
this may be materialism when set side by side with the vague, un- 
certain spiritual refinements of orthodox Christianity. None the less, 
it is the simple teachings of the New Testament, if that book is to be 
taken at its face value. "It has always been a cardinal teaching of the 
Latter-day Saints," to use the language of the late President Joseph F. 
Smith, "that a religion that has not the power to save people temporally 
and make them prosperous and happy here, cannot be depended upon 
to save them spiritually, and to exalt them in the life to come." And 
that is the whole explanation of the "Mormons," and they have no 
apologies to offer for trying to make the most of this life, since they 
also believe profoundly in the life to come. 

The Latter-day Saints have great faith in the goodness and the 
power of God. Unlike the impersonal deity of the so-called in- 
tellectuals, or the passionless, incorporeal God of the orthodox Christian, 
their God is a Person, with personal qualities, whom they can love 
and who can respond to their love. They accept without reservation 
or qualification the statement in the New Testament that Christ is the 
veritable Son of God and the Savior of the world, that he is God 
manifest in the flesh. The God of Joseph Smith, who revealed him- 
self to a poor boy "of no consequence" in response to a simple prayer 
for light and whom this same boy afterwards described as always ready 
to help those who go to him in faith — this God is good enough for 
the "Mormons." And they have seen his power made manifest in 
their behalf on a thousand occasions in their history — in the healing 
ordinance, wherein the blind have been made to see, the deaf to hear, 
the halt to leap with joy, and even the dead to come to life again; in 



73 6 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

the gift of tongues and the interpretation of tongues; in prophecy and 
its fulfilment; in inspired dreams and visions and revelations; but most 
of all in the stillness of the small voice first changing the purpose of 
their heart from following in the ways of sin and darkness to an 
anxiety about God and the truth, and then whispering consolation 
in hours of trial and friendlessness. They have therefore abundant rea- 
son for believing more in the power of God than in the power of man. 
It is this trust in the ever-present power of God that has vitalized 
"Mormonism" through all its days. It is this that has made this re- 
ligion so different from the luke-warm creeds of our time — different in 
its doctrines, in its point of view, its outlook upon life, and in its 
fundamental spirit. Converted Latter-day Saints have the same fire, 
zeal, enthusiasm that characterized the first Christians. It is derived 
from their belief in a God of power as opposed to one who is silent 
to-day and otherwise unconcerned> in human welfare. Without this 
confidence in this God of power "Mormonism" would be but a dry 
husk, a creed of mere form and ceremony, and the "Mormon" people 
would have been overcome by those first onslaughts on their faith. 
But having this upholding confidence in Him they were not only able 
to abide these, but have gone on adding strength to strength, till now 
they bid fair to establish a permanent institution among men. Through 
this faith "Mormonism" has been able to redeem a desert, to build up 
an organization that is recognized as one of the best in the world, and 
to set up a philosophy of life that satisfies hundreds of thousands of 
intelligent men and women. A God of power, not an abstraction, is 
what the American nation, and every nation, needs in order that its 
people may see and apply the law of human brotherhood. 

(To be continued) 



The Storm 

All through the night I heard the wind chasing, 

Hurrying, scurrying, past my door, 
Loudly exclaiming, and ever proclaiming: 

I, the great north wind am king of the storm! 

All through the night I heard the rain dashing, 

Lashing, splashing, against my door, 
Always protesting, and feebly requesting 

To be freed from dominion of unreasoning king. 

All through the night 'midst storms wild maneuv'ring, 

I listened for lull, and the still, small voice, 
Anxiously waiting, storms abating, 

And at last, in the darkness. I discerned a hush. 

Then at the dawning of a new morning, 

In time with winds easing, I heard the Voice, 

Softly commanding, gently demanding, 

The King of the storm king speaks: "Peace be still." 

Salt Lake City A. HENDERSON 




13 th WARD ASSEMBLY ROOMS, SALT LAKE CITY 
Where the First Y. M. M. I. A. was organized. 18 75 

THE ORIGINAL Y. M. M. I. A., THIRTEENTH 
WARD, SALT LAKE CITY 

By Junius F. Wells 

There was an association called the Thirteenth ward Young 
Men's Association, organized in March, 1874, with constitution and 
by-laws. Its officers were chosen by ballot, for a term of six months, 
and members were admitted, after a week's nomination and payment 
of fifty cents admission fee. 

The officers were A. M. Mortimer, president; H. A. Woolley 
and Will H. Hennefer, counselors; J. E. Shipp, secretary, and Joseph 
Morris, treasurer. Among the members were John Reading, C. M. 
Donelson, Jr., Jos. E. Taylor, H. G. Park, George Goddard, Jos. E. 
Wilson, John Young, Jr., J. E. Johnson, Orson Woolley, Edwin T. 
Woolley, Millen Atwood. The minutes of but three meetings (March 
10, 17, 20, 1874, are preserved. Two questions had been proposed 
for discussion, viz: 



738 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

(1) "The Organization of Legislative Bodies," 

(2) "Which has the Better Right to American Soil, the Indian 
or White Man?" 

In the above we have a fair example of the Improvement As- 
sociations, which were to be found in several wards of the city, and in a 
few towns outside, prior to the beginning of the General Organization 
of the Young Men in June, 1 875. A persual of the proceedings of the 
first regular ward meeting of the new organization in which minutes 
were taken, plainly shows the distinction. (See Historic Sketch, First 
Period, in June Era, 1925.) The imperfect minutes of this meeting, 
as recorded are as follows: 

"Meeting of the Y. M. M. I. Association, August 19, 1875, held in the 
Thirteenth Ward Assembly Rooms. Junius F. Wells presiding. Prayer by M. B. 
Young. Brother Wells said that we had met for the purpose of organizing the 
society for the benefit of the young men of the Thirteenth Ward. On motion H. H. 
Goddard was appointed secretary pro tem after which a few encouraging and interest- 
ing remarks was made by Junius F. Wells and Millen Atwood. The following names 
was presented to the meeting as the officers of the society and were unanimously 
sustained: President, H. A. Woolley; 1st Counselor, M. B. Young; 2nd Counselor, 
H. J. Grant; Secretary, H. H. Goddard. 

"After which meeting adjourned till Monday, August 23, at half past seven 
o'clock p. m. Benediction by C. J. Thomas. 

The next entry in the record which has been preserved is of the 
meeting held on Monday, August 23, 1875. It is as follows: 

"Monday, August 23rd, 1875. Meeting met as per adjournment. H. A. 
Woolley presiding. Prayer by M. B. Young. The following were elected members 
of the society: H. A. Woolley, M. B. Young, H. J. Grant, H. H. Goddard, Jos. 
Wilson, H. G. Whitney, Jos. Morris, and E. Larson. 

"President Woolley stated that the object of meeting together in this capacity, 
as he understood it, was to learn more about the Religion that we had embraced, and 
speak upon the different Principles of the Gospel commencing with Faith. But he 
said that he would like Brother Junius F. Wells to explain. Brother Wells said that 
Brother Woolley had a correct idea of the meeting, as he understood it, by President 
Young. Feramorz Little being present gave some very good instructions and advice 
to those present, and was followed by John Henry Smith, E. Larsen and Jos Morris, 
all of whom spoke very good, after which the following were elected members of the 
society: James Sterling; Heber Searle, Chas. A. Long, A. Musser, W. H. Fowler, B. 
H. Goddard, Philip Stringham, W. W. Willson, Lorenzo Young, B. S. Young, Alonzo 
Young, Oluf Hammer, and F. B. Piatt. 

"Meeting adjourned till Monday, August 30th, at half past seven o'clock p. m. 
Benediction by Jos. Morris. 

"The subject of Faith was selected to speak upon at the next meeting. — H. H. 
Goddard, secretary." 

A fragment of the proceedings of the meeting of August 30th is 
preserved. It reads as follows: 

"Monday, August 30th, 1875. Meeting called to order by President Woolley. 
Prayer by H. J. Grant. Roll called, twenty (20) members present. The president 
stated that each member would get up and speak when their names was called by the 
secretary. He being the first on the roll he said that he was not prepared to speak 
upon the subject that had been selected to speak upon, as he had not had time to 



ORIGINAL Y. M. M. I. A. IN THIRTEENTH WARD 



739 




B. Morris Young 
First Counselor 



Heber J. Grant 
Second Counselor 



Henry A. Woolley Hyrum H. Goddard 
President Secretary 



OFFICERS OF THE FIRST Y. M. M. I. A., SALT LAKE CITY 

study it up. He did not think it was necessary to confine ourselves entirely to one 
subject but speak as the spirit dictated." 

It was at this meeting that the roll call from the minute books 
was first made. The previous roll calls, I believe, were from the lists 
of names made in pencil on loose sheets of paper. The first of which 
was in my own hand, made as I remember at the close of the general 
meeting of June 10, 1875. It is probable that they were the first 
eighteen names of the following roll, which records all that joined the 
association down to the end of the year. 

NAMES 

Henry A. Woolley, B. Morris Young, Heber J. Grant, Hyrum H. Goddard, 
Joseph A. Wilson, Horace G. Whitney, Joseph Morris, E. Larson, 
James Sterling, Heber Searle, Charles A. Long, Orson Woolley, Amos Musser, 
Jr., W. H. Fowler, B. H. Goddard, Philip Stringham, W. W. Wilson, Lorenzo 
Young, Brigham S. Young, Alonzo Young, Olaf Hammer, Franklin B. Piatt, J. 
Willard Clawson, Junius Larson, Edwin T. Woolley, N. P. Larsen, Orson F. Whitney, 
E. A. Day, Heber M. Wells, Richard W. Young, Joseph C. Bentley, Meliton G. 
Trejo, Owen Frewin. 

A perusal of the above list of thirty-three names discloses a re- 
markable fact, which accredits the first regularly organized Y. M. M. 
I. A. with an additional distinction hardly to be equalled by any other 
association of young men anywhere. 

From among them one became president of the Church; two 
were apostles; one, governor of the state; one, brigadier-general 
of the U. S. army, and military leader of state troops in two great 
wars; one, general manager of Utah's oldest and greatest newspaper; 
one, the state's most eminent portrait painter; three have been mission 
presidents and nineteen have filled missions; three were stake presidents; 



740 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

two, bishops of wards (I think more) ; six were general and stake 
officers Y. M. M. I. A.; and at least eight were ward presidents. I do 
not believe that I have given the association full credit in this record 
of attainment. I am sure that I have not over-stated it. 

Space will not permit many quotations from the weekly minutes 
of this first year's record, which were incompletely kept down to 
June, 1876, when the association adjourned for the season; except 
to hold monthly meetings. The first efforts were characterized by 
such expressions as to "rise and make a few remarks;" the recurrence 
of the phraze, "I am not prepared to speak on the subject tonight;" and 
the frequent assurance that "the gospel we believe in is the restored 
gospel, proved by the scriptures." The punctual members often "re- 
gretted to see so many absent." When the "Word of Wisdom" was 
the subject for discussion it is recorded that "Brother H. J. Grant 
spoke a few minutes and said, if a person had any sense at all he 
could see that tobacco and whisky were not good for the human 
system, as nearly everybody that uses tobacco had to make themselves 
sick the first time they tried it." Brother O. F. Whitney said 
"there is wisdom in many things besides the using of liquor and 
tobacco. Injuries were received by not using wisdom in regard to 
eating; when persons crowd their stomachs, especially at evening, when 
their digestive organs are exhausted." 

Many very interesting and noble principles were briefly dis- 
coursed upon by the boys of this association. The members were, 
with but few exceptions, under twenty years of age. A foundation of 
faith, a testimony of the truth, and a willingness to serve God and 
their fellowmen, were established here, for which the members in later 
life generally give credit to the Y. M. M. I. A. of the old Thriteenth 
ward. 



An Appreciation 



You sent me a lilac, so dainty and fair, 

A flower of delicate grace. 
Quietly reading, I sat in my chair; 

The lilac reposed in its vase. 

The perfume so fragrant was wafted to me, 

As the soft western zephyr blew, 
I turned from my book the blossom to see, 

And smiled as I thought of you. 

For thorns in our pathway are scattered so oft, 
But tokens of love are more rare, 

Petals of flowers make hard places soft, 
And lighten a friend's load of care. 

Magrath, Aha., Canada MAUDE B. RASMUSSEN 



PRESERVING THE LORE OF THE UTES 

By Prof. H. R. Merrill, Brigham Young University 

No people on earth should take more genuine interest in the 
Indians than the Latter-day Saints. To most people the red men are 
merely a savage race, while to the Latter-day Saints they represent 
the remnants of a once mighty and noble people. In fact, to the 
Latter-day Saints they represent a people who were once the beloved 
of the Lord, and who still have unfilled promises ahead of them. 

Furthermore, the Ute Indians especially deserve consideration at 
the hands of our people, for it was from them that these fertile valleys 
were obtained. They are the original land owners of the West. In 
the face of these facts I have never been sure that we as a people 
have fulfilled to the letter our obligations. I do know that in 
the days of Jacob Hamblin, N. Tenny, and others of our missionaries, 
a good work was done among our dusky brethren, but in recent years, 
if any great work has been accomplished, I have never heard of it. 

Individuals, however, may be doing a good work among the 
Utes and the Piutes. One especially has come under my observation. 
Professor William F. Hanson, for years a resident of Vernal, but 
now connected with the Music Department of the Brigham Young 
University, has spent the last fifteen or twenty years in the vicinity 
of the Indians, and has been doing his best to save their traditions, 
their music, and their dances, as well as their superstitions, even if he 
has spent but little time in an attempt to save their souls. I am not 
sure that William F. Hanson has not done a greater work than if 
he had really spent his time in preaching to his neighbors of the 
Tepee. 

After all, the literature of a people, whether it be written or 
oral, is the history of the soul of that people; the music of a race 
is the expression of its inmost heart; the traditional dances of a 
system of civilization are the physical reactions to mental states of being. 
Professor Hanson has been doing a great work in an attempt to preserve 
all three emotional expressions, as well as many of the traditions 
that have been associated with the story hour at the fireside. 

The songs of the Indians, according to Professor Hanson, are 
practically inarticulate. They sing songs without words, expressing 
in their tonal quality, in the lilt of the melody, all that other races 
express in words and music. These songs have definite tunes, de- 
finite rhythm, and are sung for special occasions. Indians have no 
foolish songs such as "It ain't a goin' to rain no mo'." Their songs 
are mostly ceremonial and have a meaning that prevents them from 
being sung at various times. 

I sat and listened while Quinance, one of the most important 



PRESERVING THE LORE OF THE UTES 



743 




Left: Ar-chu, a skillful old dramatic dancer of the tribe. Right: Wallace 
Jack, a splendid type of young Indian. 

singers of his tribe, was inscribing tribal songs upon wax records for 
Professor Hanson. To me all of his melodies had much the same tune, 
but to Professor Hanson, who has listened to the music all his life, 
each number had a definite character. 

I also had the privilege of seeing Professor Hanson's Wigwam 
Company dance and sing the songs of the Utes. The dances, to me, 
were exceedingly interesting, and as untrained as I am, I could see 
that the dances for a special occasion were different from the dances 
used for other special occasions, although all dances had as their 
foundation much the same kind of steps. 

A number of years ago, Professor Hanson composed the "Sun 
Dance" opera. He was asisted in this work by a full-blood, educated 
Indian lady. This opera had in it the actual music of the Sun dance. 
When it was produced under the direction of Professor Anthon C. 
Lund, by the Music Department of the Brigham Young University, 
several Indian men of prominence took parts in the great spectacle. 
It was played eleven times in Provo to packed houses. Many people, 
so great was its interest, went to see the production five and six times 
and found something new in the strange melodies of the Utes as 
they were harmonized in the opera each succeeding night. 

The Sun dance, however, is a Sioux dance, although it has been 
borrowed by the Utes and is used annually in their own ceremonies. 
Professor Hanson determined to get something really Ute in character. 
He then hit upon the ideal of writing the "Bear Dance Opera," since 
the bear dance represents a genuine Ute tradition. 

Among the Utes there is a beautiful old folk tradition about the 



744 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



return of spring. Nearly every people has some such tradition. The 
Ute tradition is built around the idea that the bear, on account of 
his hybernating habits, knows when spring is coming by some 
mysterious power that calls him forth from his sleep. It is quite 
natural that these primitive people should find in the thunder the 
voice of the Great Spirit; consequently, they have a tradition that 
in the first thunder storm of spring, the bears are awakened and called 
to enjoy the warmth and beauties of spring. 

The bear dance, therefore, is held annually in March, or early 




Ar-chu, showing an elaborate Ute head-dress. It is 
beautifully colored. The vest he wears is a 
high-wrought work of beaded art. 



April. The tribesmen get together and build a big corral of brush 
and poles in which to hold their annual spring festival. This corral 
(for some reason,) is built new every year. When the appointed 
time arrives, Indians from far and near drive in to attend the Bear 
Dance. The orchestra strikes up a tune; the young braves and Indian 
girls stand around until, finally, a girl selects a partner and the dance 
begins. Back and forth the couples dance over the dusty ground hour 
after hour. At night they feast, and then go home to return next day 
for another session. In this way the dance proceeds for seven days. 
During this time various prayers and incantations are offered to the 
Great Spirit. He is asked to mature their corn, to free the people 
from pestilence, and to make the hunting good. 



PRESERVING THE LORE OF THE UTES . 745 

The orchestra is a quaint organization made up of twenty or 
thirty men who sit around a hollow log, a piece of thin iron, or some 
other material that will echo well the noise they make by scraping a 
notched stick over a bone or another stick, to represent the growl of the 
bear who is just waking from sleep, and is preparing to come out into 
the sunshine. Some of these sticks are quaintly carved, indicating that 
the Ute has a sense of art himself. These growls are accompanied 
by songs — Bear Dance Songs — that are supposed to give the dancers 
the rhythm of the occasion. 

This quaint folk tale, Professor Hanson has selected and has 
built into a genuinely good opera. The very music, the very tradi- 
tions of the Utes are incorporated in the piece. It is true that Professor 
Hanson has set words to some of the melodies in order that the white 
man who has a less keen imagination than the primitive children of 
the valleys, may understand more perfectly what it is all about. The 
Indian needs no words; his active imagination leads him through the 
entire performance without difficulty. 

This opera is completed now and is only waiting for a producer. 
Just when it will be staged for the first time is not known. 

"I did not write it to produce," Professor Hanson said, "I wrote 
it mainly because I couldn't resist the urge to place our Ute music 
in a permanent form where it can be passed along to other generations. 
Already these traditions and performances are dying down under the 
approach of civilization. The young Indians already hesitate about 
taking part with their elders. In fact, many of the educated youngsters 
will not have anything to do with these tribal performances. Within a 
very few years most of this lore will be lost if someone doesn't 
preserve it. 

"There may be some who believe that it isn't worth preserving. 
I am not one of those. I see in these dances and in this music some- 
thing interesting and beautiful; something worth while in attempting 
to interpret the life of our Indian brothers." 

Professor Hanson, I am sure, is right. It seems to me that all 
of us should be willing to support him a little bit by our interest and 
encouragement if not by our money. 

Early this year Professor Hanson entered a song based on Ute 
melodies and Ute traditions in an international contest. He won the 
second prize with his effort and received a very kind letter from New 
York encouraging him in his efforts to preserve the Ute music. 

People are sometimes slow to recognize talent in their own sons. 
Annually, almost, the two great Indian interpreters, Cadman and 
Lieurance, are invited into the state to give performances featuring the 
music of eastern tribes of Indians, while we have here a native son who 
has done as much for his own state Indians as they have done for the 
east. When we should be more interested than any one else in Indian 



746 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



traditions, we seem, however, to like to have these traditions preserved 
by other people. 

A call for the production of the Bear Dance opera would be 
welcomed by many people who would like to see and hear it, but it 
costs money to produce an opera, and it takes support. Up to the 
present Professor Hanson has had neither. 

The Utes are a fine tribe of people. They have now dwindled 
to a mere handful of about twelve hundred and fifty souls. It is 
hoped that the opera may be produced while yet there are genuine old- 
fashioned dancers and singers in the tribe who can give first hand 
information regarding the ceremonial and who can take part in the 
performance. At any rate, I am of the opinion that already Professor 
Hanson has done enough towards preserving the lore of the Utes to 
merit our thanks and the thanks of our Indian neighbors. 
Provo, Utah 



President Grant's Visit in the South 

President Heber J. Grant spoke in the Duval theatre in Jacksonville, 
Sunday morning and Sunday evening, March 1, 1925, to large and repre- 




President Heber J. Grant, Sister Agusta W. Grant, Sister Dessie Boyle, Elder chas. 
A. Callis and the missionaries of the Florida conference, Jacksonville, Fla. 



sentative audiences. The President and his party visited St. Augustine dur- 
ing his visit in Florida. From Jacksonville President Grant went to 
Atlanta, March 8, where he addressed two great audiences in the Lyric 
theatre. While in the South he was the recipient of many courtesies from 
leading business men. The newspapers published very fair interviews with 
him, and the President's visit to the South was a genuine spiritual uplift 
to the missionaries and members. The non-"Mormons" who attended the 
meetings listened with respectful attention. — Chas. A. Callis, president of the 
Southern States mission* 



RACING WITH FIRE 

By W. E. Langry, Forest Ranger 

The car being ready and packed with bedding, camp equipment, 
food supplies, fishing tackle and gun, Mr. Wilson drove to the front 
gate and called out, "All aboard." Mrs. Wilson and her twelve-year- 
old daughter Dorothy, dressed for a mountain trip, came out and got 
into the car. 

They were glad to leave the little town of Nelsen with its 
sweltering July heat, dusty streets and sun-parched fields to enter the 
canyon of Lion Creek enroute for a vacation in the high forested 
mountains lying eastward. 

The cooling breezes of the canyon refreshed the party and stimu- 
lated them to an appreciation of the changing scenes along the way. 
Above the boulder-strewn, sagebrush-covered foothills, the more nar- 
rowed canyon is bordered by broken rims, dotted with juniper and 
pinion trees and made increasingly verdant by oakbrush, grass and wild 
flowers. Farther up waterfalls are frequent and the slopes are covered 
with spruce and fir trees. Finally the deep canyon opens into a high 
mountain valley into which several small streams flow draining 
the higher mountains beyond. 

On a small grassy flat near the largest of these streams the 
party pitched camp. 

Mr. Wilson could scarcely stop long enough to kindle the camp 
fire for his wife. He grabbed his fishing tackle and, followed by 
Dorothy, went down the creek to fish. Dorothy's shrieks of delight 
echoing through the timber hinted strongly of the success of their 
fishing, so Mrs. Wilson was not greatly surprised when the anglers 
returned to camp with a fine mess of rainbow trout. 

Surely Dad," remarked Mrs. Wilson, "you are not going to 
cook all of those trout for dinner?" as her husband dropped the last 
fish into the hot pan. "Indeed I am," he replied. "Our down- 
town appetites will give way to the real thing in the mountains. No 
normal person patronizes nature's mountain health offerings unre- 
warded by a vigorous appetite. Right now I am as hungry as a 
wolf." 

After a highly enjoyable meal the party made ready to continue 
farther into the mountains but were halted by Dorothy while she 
poured a pan of water onto the camp fire. She had read two 
posters near the camp. One was, "Play Safe With Fire," the other, 
"Put Out Your Camp Fire." 

Crossing the creek the party drove slowly southward along a long 
road through a dense spruce forest. Mr. Wilson, being a lumber 
dealer, looked closely at the trees admiring them for the great volume 
and fine quality of lumber they might produce. Mrs. Wilson, an 



748 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

artist, was thrilled with the wonderful scenery, while Dorothy delighted 
in the songs of the birds, the whistle of the woodchuck and the 
fragrance of the wild flowers. Several stops were made to see fleeing 
deer. Emerging from the forest and crossing a grassy ridge they came 
to Glacier Lake which is nestled at the west base of a high mountain 
peak, shut in by stone cliffs on the east and south and drained on the 
west by a small creek which also is shut from the south by the rim. 
Camp was pitched and the family settled down to enjoy their vacation. 

The next morning while fishing Mr. Wilson noted that the west 
wind which had been blowing all night had changed and was coming 
from the north-west and immediately the atmosphere became darkened 
and great clouds of smoke floated over the lake and up the steep moun- 
tainside. He hurried to a high point nearby where he could see that 
a fire was raging in the forest through which they had passed the after- 
noon before. 

Rushing to the car their outfit was soon loaded and a mad run 
made to get through the forest before the fire might cross their path. 
The big Buick car was put to its test. Over the grassy ridge it sped 
fairly jumping from bump to bump, Mr. Wilson steering resolutely 
while the wife and daughter, watching only the massive smoke below, 
clung desperately on to avoid being hurled from the car. They reached 
the forest only to be met by a blinding cloud of smoke which made 
it difficult to follow the road. Smoke came heavier and heavier until 
the driver was forced to stop. The stricken pause was broken by a 
local change in the wind which turned the smoke revealing a large fire 
immediately in front of the car. The attempt to back up the hill failed 
as the car slipped off the grade and stuck against a stump where it 
was abondoned by its occupants who fled on foot before the on-coming 
flames. Together they climbed up the ridge through the blinding, 
chocking smoke headed for the lake. What with fire behind and at 
their right and impassable rims before and at their left there was no 
retreat beyond the lake. Nor were they alone, for birds, deer, 
coyotes, grouse and numerous other denizens of the forest were going 
the same way, all answering a common instinct. Near the lake a 
band of sheep were encountered trotting with noses to the ground 
following their bewildered leaders' aimless retreat. 

Standing near the lake the Wilsons heard a human call. It was 
from the Mexican shepherd trying to direct his flock from the fire. 
Fainter and fainter grew the call from the direction of the fire until 
it could be heard no more. He had lost control of the sheep but 
continued to follow to head them back. 

The only relief to be had from smoke when the wind blew 
directly toward the stranded family was to lie close to the ground at 
the lake shore. Here they spent the day, the fire coming steadily 
nearer. Wild animals of the forest were likewise hugging the lake. 
A coyote and a fawn were seen together apparently unconcerned in 
each others presence. Flames reached the north bank of the lake. 



RACING WITH FIRE 749 

i 
A human call rang out — the Wilsons answered in chorus. Two 

fire wardens had scaled the cliffs from the east for the rescue. There 
was no time to lose. Neither was there a chance to flee from the place 
as was expected by the family upon the arrival of the wardens. Every- 
body got busy bringing in timbers which were chopped with the 
warden's ax and fashioned into a crude raft held together by ties of 
belts, coats, shirts and other pieces of clothing. 

The raft was scarcely completed when the flames had completely 
encircled the lake. The whole party went on the raft to the middle 
of the lake where they spent the night. Much of the time it was 
necessary for them to keep in the water because of the excess heat 
from the fire. 

When morning came, the fire had died down sufficiently to allow 
the party to leave through the north-east corner of the burned area. 
They saw blackened ground, charred logs and snags and burned 
carcasses of animals where on the day before there had been a beautiful 
landscape, valuable forest timber and interesting animal life. But the 
climax was felt in the finding of the burned body of the faithful 
Mexican shepherd lying in the midst of his fallen flock. 

The warden, being questioned, reluctantly related the story of how 
the origin of the fire had been traced to the Wilson campfire. The 
pan of water poured onto the fire by Dorothy failed to kill all of the 
coals and the brisk wind of that evening had fanned them into flames 
which reached the nearby leaves and twigs and spread into the forest. 

Seated in the camp of the firefighters where the family had been 
taken, Mr. Wilson saw the charred body of the shepherd brought in. 
Sickened by the sight he turned away gazing at a distance until his 
eyes, tiring, rested on one of the tents of the camp. There he read the 
red-letter warning, "Play Safe With Fire." Its meaning was too clear. 
Fish Lake National Forest, Salina, Utah 



The Smoker 

The smoker puffs away at ease 
But never appetites appease, 
He will in joy or pleasure tend 
Whoever he may more offend, 
However you may want to glare 
You'd only get the stony stare, 
He smokes and smokes as if in spite 
Whatever you may think is right, 
He does not care if got in bad 
For all the knocks he may have had, 
Although when told it dulls his brain 
He has not courage to refrain, 
Nor ever will his smoke relay 
Until there comes a time to pay, 
And when at last the time he's old, 
Alas! what wretched story told! 

James D. Todd 



HEROES OF SCIENCE 

By Pres. F. S. Harris and N. I. Butt 

OF THE BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 

12. — Edison 

Edison says, "Genius is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine 
per cent perspiration" and a study of his life very markedly indicates 
this to be true in his case. Although there have been taken out over 
1000 patents in his name in a period of 55 years, or at a rate of about 
20 a year, it should not be supposed that he does not work hard to 
secure each one. Before he completes some of his devices to his own 
satisfaction he and his assistants often spend many years of strenuous 
toil. He thinks nothing of spending five, six or seven years in solving 
a worthy problem. On more than one he has worked over 25 years, 
performing thousands of experiments, and still he has not come to the 
satisfactory solution, he some day hopes to secure. 

"Every man has something he can do better than anyone else," 
is one of Edison's favorite sayings. He thinks the reason he is accom- 
plishing more than many other people is because he did not jump into 
the first job that came in his way but investigated and studied himself 
until he was sure he was entering a life work in which he could suc- 
ceed. A brief review of his life will show that he always tried to keep 
his thinking apparatus in active use so that it never became rusty with 
lack of activity as sometimes happens. At the age of 77 he still is 
energetically planning new experiments in many lines of endeavor. 

Very early in life Edison showed an exceptional curiosity for un- 
solved mysteries. Eleven years after his birth which occurred in 1847, 
a year well known in Utah history, he had converted the cellar of the 
family home into a chemical laboratory where he studied the curious 
reactions of various substances. Two years later when he became a 
newsboy and "candy butcher" on a passenger train he fixed up as a 
laboratory one corner of the car allotted to him. There he performed 
experiments in spare moments. Another diversion at which he kept 
himself busy on the train was printing the first newspaper ever issued 
from a moving train. He rustled the news both on the train and at 
the stations where the train stopped. This career lasted until 1862. 

About this time Edison saved the life of a telegraph operator's 
son from an approaching train. In appreciation of this act Edison, 
now sixteen years of age, was delighted to be offered the opportunity 
to learn telegraphy. He threw his whole self into mastering this art 
and very soon was an expert operator. The following year he was 
given a position as night telegrapher which he held for some time, al- 
though his greatest interest appeared to be in experiments in his lab- 
oratory at home. 



HEROES OF SCIENCE 751 

For the five years following the time he left the first position as 
telegrapher he wandered from city to city easily finding work as a 
telegrapher wherever he went, because of his exceptional ability as an 
operator. However, the work did not give Edison the proper sort of 
mental activity to keep him from thinking about other things, so he 
was never satisfied until he left this field and began to invent. 

Edison's first experience as an inventor was exceedingly discourag- 
ing. He made a vote-recording machine for which there was no de- 
mand and the only purpose it served was to remind the young in- 
ventor to "look before you leap." 

His first success as an inventor came from improvements he made 
on the device he knew best — the telegraph. He performed the experi- 
ments leading up to these improvements in a private laboratory where 
he worked after his regular work was done. So interested was he in 
trying to create new devices that often he worked at the experiments 
all night, utterly indifferent to sleep. As in later years, he conceived 
a desired improvement, and then thought, and planned and tested un- 
til finally he succeeded in what he was trying to do. 

In 1870 for a successful improvement in telegraph tickers he was 
given $40,000. This large sum of money gave him the opportunity 
he desired, — to devote his whole efforts to experimentation. He opened 
up laboratories in Newark, hired some mechanics to help him, and 
began the career which he followed the rest of his life. 

Although he was making little discoveries which helped toward 
the larger goals all the time, it was not until 1876 that Edison made 
the next important discovery. By this time he had spent all of the 
money from the former invention and was in fear lest he should lose 
his laboratory and machinery. Just when trouble began to pile up 
thick, however, he received $30,000 for the quadruplex telegraphic 
device which made it possible to send two messages each way over a 
single wire. While the money received for this invention seems a 
large sum to most of us, experimental laboratories and expert assistants 
cost much, and Edison soon spent all he had on a new device for which 
he received hardly anything. 

The telephone was patented in 1876 but it was an imperfect de- 
vice. Edison decided to try to perfect the transmitter which was not 
at all satisfactory. In less than a year he and his assistants had per- 
fected the transmitter which, with later improvements, is still in use. 
For this he secured $100,000 and this together with about three times 
this amount received a little later for the same device made it possible 
to experiment on the large scale he desired. 

The action of the diaphragm of the telephone suggested to Edison 
the use of a diaphragm to record the vibrations of the voice on metal. 
The result was the phonograph which he patented in 1877 shortly after 
the telephone transmitter was perfected. Edison loves music and so 
has been greatly interested in the phonograph ever since its invention. 



752 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

He doesn't consider it to be perfected yet, and very often turns his mind 
to its improvement. 

A further discussion of the inventions of this wonder worker is 
unnecessary. Nearly everyone knows that he invented the first suc- 
cessful incandescent light, improved the devices for generating and dis- 
tributing electricity, made perfections which brought the motion pic- 
ture into popular use, invented an electric storage battery which is re- 
garded as the best in the world, and has made hundreds of other valu- 
able improvements. 

If we inquire as to why Edison has had so much success whereas 
most inventors seem to get nowhere, we learn that it is because he is 
thorough and systematic. He does not waste a lot of time and money 
discovering facts which are already known as the average inventor does, 
but he and his assistants search books and technical journals for every- 
thing which might help them. Then commences a period of thinking 
and planning which precedes the actual experiments. Edison tries to 
surround himself with helpers whose minds are active like his own so 
that they will desire to know all the facts and to be on the lookout for 
anything leading toward success. Surrounded with such men he spares 
no effort to keep his laboratories well equipped, because he knows that 
to win depends upon the thoroughness with which every phase of a 
subject is searched. Edison never gives up after a half hearted trial, 
very few important investigations ever being abandoned after once be- 
gun. Thoroughness and hard thinking are his watchwords. 
Provo, Utah 



Fountains of Happiness 

Fountains of true happiness that make a perfect home, 
The perpetual developments that to its inmates come: 

The perpetual courtship that parents shall keep youth, 
The perpetual seeking for the light of truth. 

The perpetual patience to keep one's temper cool! 
Oh! what is this earth life but a continual school? 

A perpetual yielding to each other's will, 
The perpetual desires life's duties to fulfil. 

A perpetual counsel to discourse and advise, 

A perpetual school that with knowledge we may rise. 

Perpetual confidence, no secrets keep apart 

From the pure flowing fountains of homemate and of heart. 

Perpetual counselling on problems to be solved, 
With interests in common, ne'er to be dissolved. 

Perpetual faith in God, at first, at last, alwav. 
To keep the inmates' footsteps from wand'ring far astray. 
ahtand, California. ANNIE G. LAURITZEN. 



Y.'M. M. I. A. PUBLICATIONS 

By Preston Nibley, of the General Board Y. M. M. I. A. 

The Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association was estab- 
lished on the 10th of June, 1875. It was a little more than two years 
thereafter before the association had any publication. This creditable 
work was begun by the association at Ogden, under the presidency of 
Joseph A. West (whom we are pleased to say is still with us), and 
issued in the form of a little semi-monthly magazine known as the 
Amateur. As I write I have before me the issues of this magazine. 
The first number was printed on November 7, 1877. It is small in 
size, and its articles are short, but they were all meant for intellectual 
and moral uplift. All the work connected with the little magazine, even 
the setting of type and the printing, was done without cost, John P. 
Smith, Alma D. Chambers, Edwin A. Stratford, Geo. G. Taylor of the 
Ogden Junction printing office being the chief laborers, after the 
hours of their regular days' work. It was edited free also, and during 
the first year the editors were chosen for short terms. Those who 
served were Joseph A. West, Austin C. Brown, John P. Smith and 
Zechariah Ballantyne. The Amateur appeared regularly through the 
winter, and on May 8, 1878, it was announced, editorially, as follows: 
"The young people of the country may now look for a periodical of at 
least double the size of the present one, of greatly improved character 
and appearance, in regular newspaper form." Thereafter the Amateur 
appeared in regular newspaper form of four pages, issued semi-monthly 
from June 1, 1878, to May 15, 1879, when it was discontinued to 
make way for the Contributor, published monthly at Salt Lake City, 
the first number of which was circulated in October, 1879, and was 
edited and published by Junius F. Wells. 

We of this later date can thank Elder Joseph A. West for setting 
the Amateur on its way, from which modest beginning followed not 
only the publication of the seventeen volumes of the Contributor, 
with their rich and useful contents, but later the establishment of our 
splendid magazine, the Improvement Era. Then, as now, the aim was 
of the very highest. In his first editorial announcement of the 
Amateur, Brother West said: 

"Mutual Improvement Associations, as organized among our people, 
have for their object the moral and intellectual advancement of the sons and 
daughters of Zion. In the accomplishment of this, no definite or fixed rules 
are made prescribing the exact nature of the exercises that should tend to the 
attainment of these objects, but each society is at liberty to pursue such a 
course as its circumstances and the wisdom of its members may direct, keeping 
constantly in view the general design, and seeking continually for the spirit of 
God to direct them in their proceedings. 

"Now, inasmuch as we, as a people, are often called upon to expound 
and defend the principles of our faith through the press, and since the 



754 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

exercise of writing upon these and kindred subjects is highly conducive to our 
moral and intellectual advancement, and therefore in keeping with the general 
objects of our organization, we have deemed it proper and believe it will 
prove of great benefit to us, as a society, to undertake the publication of a 
small bi-monthly paper whose columns shall be made up exclusively of the 
contributions of members and devoted to the consideration of religious, 
literary, scientific, and any and all subjects bearing a strictly moral character." 

It is with a tender and affectionate feeling that I have turned 
the pages af the Amateur, and read its various interesting and enlight- 
ening articles. It seems amazing that under pioneer conditions those 
young men of Ogden could do so well with their little magazine. 
They spoke out clearly and boldly and said the truth as they felt 
it and saw it, and their little literary compositions breathe the spirit 
of the gospel throughout. They held firmly to the principal object 
of their organization, mutual improvement and development. From the 
first it was designed to change the editorship of the magazine monthly, 
and to accept no contributions to its pages except from members. Thus 
the young men were forced to accept responsibilities and develop their 
talents. It is in the very last number of the Amateur that I find a 
splendid little article on "Punctuality" by our present worthy associate 
editor of the Era, Edward H. Anderson. So we can thank the 
Amateur of that early date for tempting him to first appear in print. 

With the passing of the Amateur there soon began in Salt 
Lake City, the publication of a new magazine, The Contributor. The 
date of the first number is October, 1879, and the editor and 
publisher was Elder Junius F. Wells who, under commission of 
President Brigham Young, had organized the first Mutual Improvement 
Association. The Contributor was established by Brother Wells, 
"expressly in the interests of the Young Men's and Young Ladies' 
Mutual Improvement Associations." In his first editorial announce- 
ment he said: 

"That the thoughts and expressions of the young people of the territory 
will be interesting to their companions, and that in writing for the press, 
their thoughts will gain volume and solidity, seems to us reasonable, and 
sufficient cause for a publication devoted to them. It is for this reason, and 
because the growth and prosperity of our organization requires it, that we 
have undertaken to publish a periodical that will represent the associations, 
and that will foster and encourage the literary talent of their members. This 
is the mission of The Contributor, the name of which has been chosen that 
it might say to every young man and every young lady among our people, 
having literary tastes and ability, Write." 

Brother Wells launched a splendid work when he established The 
Contributor. It gave early opportunity to some of the best writers 
and literary men we have had in our Church. In the first volumes 
I find interesting and entertaining articles by O. F. Whitney, B. H. 
Roberts, R. W. Young, H. G. Whitney, E. H. Anderson, and B. F. 
Cummings, Jr., then all young men in their twenties. 

In the second volume there appeared a notable series of articles 



Y. M. M. I. A. PUBLICATIONS 755 

by Charles W. Penrose, entitled, "Leaves from the Tree of Life," 
detailing the principles of the gospel, which have since become classic 
in the Church. In pamphlet form they have been distributed by tens 
of thousands in the missionary fields. In this volume also is a series 
of articles on "The Brigham Young Academy," by James E. Talmage, 
who was at that time a student at the institution he described. 

A series of articles in volume seven (1885-86) by Brigham H. 
Roberts, on "Missouri Persecutions" are of splendid historical value, 
and have become one of the best known books by this author. The 
succeeding year Brother Roberts wrote another series of articles en- 
titled, "The Rise and Fall of Nauvoo," which soon expanded into a 
volume and is today considered the best treatise on this subject. 

In volume nine (1887-88) I find the earliest mention of our now 
well-known "Reading Course." This also appears to have originated 
with Brother Junius F. Wells, who certainly was entitled to inspira- 
tion, considering his constant and faithful labors for the Mutual Im- 
provement organizations. At the June conference of 1888, Brother 
Wells delivered a very eloquent and interesting lecture on the value 
and necessity of "A Course of Reading." His arguments were timely,. 

"We may not have given our hearts to the study and consideration of 
those things that will most benefit us, to the extent that we should have done, 
but we are now called upon to step forth and take a front rank, and ad- 
vance in the scale of human intelligence, to inform and educate ourselves, 
according to the injunctions of Holy Writ and the counsel of the inspired 
prophets of God. We as a people receive perhaps more practical instruction 
from the pulpit than any other people on the earth. But this is not enough. 
If we would become learned, if we would become cultured, if we would occupy 
the place that he has said we should occupy, if we would become, indeed, 
the people that God has declared it our privilege to be, we must observe to 
obey and keep his commandments with respect to the acquirement of 
knowledge. * * * * 

"We propose to introduce a course of reading that shall be of such a 
character, that when completed, the attentive reader will have read and 
studied every principle and doctrine that pertains to the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. He will have read the histories of the various coun- 
tries of the world. He will have read in science those truths that we are 
safe in accepting, without the fictions and theories that are dangerous to the 
peace and satisfaction of the human mind. He will have become suf- 
ficiently acquainted with the general literature of the world, at least to 
have developed within his heart a desire for further reading." 

t 
This was the comprehensive plan in that early day for the 

establishment of a "reading course," and it is safe to say that we 

have not deviated very far from it up to the present time. The first 

set of books suggested by Brother Wells, and the Superintendency, 

however, were printed by the association in uniform size and were 

titled as follows: 

The Gospel, by B. H. Roberts; The First Book of Nature, by James E. 
Talmage: History of England, by Charles Dickens; Readings from Washington Irving; 
Life of Nephi, by George Q. Cannon. 



756 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

It may be said in passing that it required great effort to put 
the "Reading Course" over, by those in charge of the Mutual work. 
The young people of the territory were more inured to hard labor 
than they were to reading and study. It was years later, 1906 in fact, 
before a "Reading Course" was again adopted. A suggestion leading 
to its revival was made at the June conference, 1903. (See Era, Vol. 
6, p. 954). But since that time its sucess has gone on unabated, and 
each year a selection of books, quite a number of them by home authors, 
has been recommended to the organizations, and read by thousands. It 
has been of untold benefit to our young people in introducing them to 
good literature and providing them with easy access to the books 
which were best fitted for them to read. 

In 1915 the Reading Course committee of the Young Men's 
organization and a similar committee of the Young Ladies' organiza- 
tion were combined to form a Joint Reading Course Committee. 
This committee functions to the present time and each season a 
number of books is carefully selected and recommended to the now 
nearly one hundred thousand members. 

Returning again to The Contributor, Brother Wells continued 
faithfully as editor and publisher until 1892, when he retired, after 
a period of thirteen years. His was a great, constructive labor and will 
stand everlastingly to his credit and honor. It is impossible here 
to estimate the good accomplished by this little magazine, with its 
fresh, wholesome articles, always published for the advancement of 
learning and culture, and for the planting of a testimony in the hearts 
of the young people. 

Speaking of the magazine, in his farewell editorial, Brother 
Wells said: 

"It is perhaps too soon yet to say how far the hopes of its founders 
have been realized — it is sufficiently gratifying however, to me, to know 
that the writings of several hundred of our young men and women — among 
them some of the most distinguished of the present day — first found the light 
of publication in the columns of The Contributor. 

"Without pretentions to literary excellence the magazine assumed from 
the beginning to be representative of the best talent that could be developed, 
through its influence among those for whom it was published. The twenty 
thousand bound volumes, preserved in the libraries of the people, is the best 
testimony today of the worth of the matter published and the merit of its 
preparation." 

After the retirement of Brother Junius F. Wells, The Contributor 
was continued for several years by the Contributor Company, under 
the active editorship of Abraham H. Cannon, and with varying suc- 
cess. But those were the days of dire distress for our people. The 
Church authorities were forced to leave their homes and frequently 
remain in hiding for long periods of time until it became extremely 
difficult to carry on the active work of the Church. And besides, the 
early death of Abraham Cannon, which occurred on the 19th of 
July, 1896, was also fatal to The Contributor, the final number of 



Y. M. M. I. A. PUBLICATIONS 75 7 

which appeared in September of that year, after the magazine had 
run through seventeen volumes. 

Truly a great and splendid work had been performed for our 
young people. The bound volumes of The Contributor on our 
library shelves today contain a veritable fund of information and a 
precious history of the past. 

The Mutual organizations were without a publication for over 
a year after the passing of The Contributor, or until November, 1897, 
when the first number of the Improvement Era appeared, its origin 
beign largely the result of the labors of those who were the original 
editors and managers. This magazine was sponsored by the organ- 
ization, with President Heber J. Grant as business manager, Thomas 
Hull as assistant and President Joseph F. Smith and B. H. Roberts as 
editors. In November, 1898, Brother Roberts was elected to Congress, 
and on June 1, 1899, Edward H. Anderson succeeded to the active as- 
sociate editorship, with President Joseph F. Smith, and later President 
Heber J. Grant, as editors. What finer tributes can we now pay to them 
than to say that for over twenty-seven years, in season and out of season, 
ofttimes in the midst of struggle and discouragement, they have stood 
nobly by the little magazine and with the splendid free work and 
assistance of the officers and writers of the M. I. A. are responsible for 
having made the Era the influential power that it is today. In its 
initial editorial it is said: 

"With this number the Improvement Era starts hopefully out upon its 
mission. As the accepted organ of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Associations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, we sincerely 
hope its merits will fully satisfy the best and truest expectations awakened 
by the announcement and promise of its advent. Its real merits will become 
known and therefore, we trust, sincerely appreciated. In proportion to its 
being sought for and carefully read by its patrons, the benefits resulting from 
its publication will bring joy and satisfaction to the hearts and homes of 
many thousands of earnest, truth-loving and progressive people." 

As predicted in this editorial, the Era has become widely known 
and truly has brought joy and satisfaction to many people. But it is 
my firm belief that even though it occupies a conspicuous position 
among the Church publications today, its destiny is great, and its 
future holds out glorious promise. It will more and more become a 
light that is set upon a hill, dispelling the darkness of misunderstanding 
and ignorance and guiding all who will see and learn, to a knowledge 
of the truth. 

In closing, a word about the Manuals and the Hand Book comes 
within the scope of my subject. The first manual did not appear until 
1891, sixteen years after the founding of the organization. Prior 
to this time the associations had been allowed to practically shape their 
own programs, although as early as 1883 a series of gospel lessons under 
the title of the Preceptor, by John Nicholson had been introduced. 
This work was enlarged and ran through a second edition in 1885, but 
was still inadequate. The first manual was therefor hailed with 



758 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



delight by teachers as well as students. It was "designed as an aid to 
the young men in pursuing the studies of theology, history, science and 
literature." The lessons were outlined in each branch in such a man- 
ner as to guide the student as to the completion of instruction akin 
to that of an academic education in the special lines of learning therein 
prescribed. No further manual was issued until 1897, but since that 
time manuals have been issued every year, covering a variety of gospel 
subjects. This year the association contemplates the issuance of two 
manuals for the Junior classes, one for the Seniors, and one for the 
Advanced Senior, the latter printed in the M. I. A. magazines. 

The compilation of a Y. M. M. I. A. Hand Book came as the 
happy suggestions of Brothers Edward H. Anderson and Nephi L. 
Morris, made at the June conference, in 1903. This work, issued as 
often as is needful, has proved to be extremely valuable and necessary 
in carrying on Y. M. M. I. A. work. Its purpose, as set forth in the 
foreword of the last edition, "is to give in detail, as far as possible, all 
necessary instructions to officers of" the Young Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations." The Hand Book is largely responsible for the 
great success in the mastery of details the officers are enjoying today. 



A Real Man 



It's not. the showy raiment 

That makes a man renowned; 
And not the fame of kindred 

That makes his name resound; 
The shrewd and handsome fellow, 

Who polished manners shows, 
May have within his nature 

A score of ugly foes. 

The smooth appearing apple 

The large and red and round ; 
E'en from a stock that's noted, 

Whose name of great renown, 
Is ofttimes disappointing 

When once we see within. 
Decay the heart hath eaten, 

In spite of looks or kin. 

It's not mere ease and comfort 
That marks a man of worth, 

'Tis not that he's inherited 

The wealth of half the earth. 

Tridell, Utah. 



The man with righteous purpose, 
Who stays through thick and thin, 

His name we all will honor. 
His grit is sure to win. 

The mushroom grows in gardens 

Where luxuries abound; 
The oak on mountain regions, 

In rough and stubborn ground. 
The mushroom is a weakling, 

Its tissues are not strong, 
The oak-wood tough and sturdy, 

It stands life's stresses lone. 

If you would merit honor 

And bear a wreathy name, 
Forget the shams that hover 

To rob you of your fame. 
Forget to pay obeisance 

To selfishness and greed, 
Let justice be your motto, 

And service be your creed. 

Eugene L. Morrill. 



WHAT THEY SAY 

A Collection of Sentiments on the Value 
of the Y. M. M. I. A. 

The figures indicate the number of years a member; h. p., high priest; and h. c, 
high councilor. 

Started me right. — William Giles, h. c, Morgan, 4 5. 

Stimulation to study and development. — J. W. Cook, h. c, Bear Lake. 

It has helped me to live a cleaner life. — Thos. E. Fowler, bishop, 2 7. 

It has been a great help to me. — -William Edward Warr, h. c. Cassia, 25. 

It gave me a start in Church work. — Andrew M. Israelson, h. c, Hyrum, 40. 

It has been a big help in my every walk in life. — J. E. Coffley, h. c, Shelley, 19. 

It has been a wonderful training school — Aaron L. Quist, h. c, Lost River, 39. 

I am unable to fully estimate its value. — John T. Partridge, h. c, Panguitch, 17. 

The M. I. A. has been of inestimable value to me. — Claude Richards, h. c, 30. 

It is a very valuable organization. I hold a life membership. — O. E. Layton, 
h. c, 30. 

It has been an inspiration for the better things in life. — /. W. Boyer, h. c, Lost 
River, 15. 

In my mission its teachings were a wonderful help. — J. Ben Higginson, h. c, 
Tintic, 15. 

Mutual Improvement has been a part of my life's work. — L. A.' McBride, 
Tooele, 3 5. 

It has kept my vision on eternity rather than on time only. — Asa W. Judd, 
h. c, Kanab. 

It has been a great factor in keeping me in the Church. — James W. Ure, h. c, 
Mt. Ogden, 29. 

Principles learned there have been a guide to me through life. — William H. Blood, 
North Davis, 23. 

I cannot estimate the priceless value it has been to me.- — Chris. B. Layton, 
h. c, North Davis. 

I obtained a testimony of the gospel in the M. I. A. work. — Bishop Edmund. 
Lovell, Shelton, 3 2. 

It helped teach me the value of service to mankind. — Edward L. Maughan, bishop, 
Mapleton, Idaho, 16. 

It makes manly boys and boyish men. God bless the Y. M. M. I. A. — T. C. 
Jeppson h. c, Nebo, 12. 

Through it I feel that I am a bigger, better, broader man. — D. K. McLean, 
bishop Soda Springs, 29. 

It was in the Y. M. M. I. A. that I received my first testimony. — Bishop 
Oliver L. Robinson, 49. 

The M. I. A. has been of inestimable value both educationally and spiritually. — 
Frank Colter, h. c, 3 5. 

As president of the Los Angeles branch eleven years I derived a great benefit. — 
William J. Reeve, h. c, 17. 

Of thought and thought awakened has developed expression. — Newel J. Colter, 
S. P., Holbrook, Idaho, 17. 



760 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

It has done much in teaching me the gospel and in keeping me in the faith. — 
C. C. Hansen, h. c. Union, 25. 

It has built up my faith and friendship with God and my fellowmen. — Bishop 
Kasper J. Fetzer, Jefferson, 10. 

It has helped me to live a better life and to the benefits of so living. — Bishop 
George M. Ward, Washakie, 3 9. 

No other organization has influenced my life for good as has the Y. M. M. I. A. 
— Charles S. Clark, h. c, Cassia. 

It has been a source of benefit to me socially, spiritually and intellectually. — 
W. E. Jenkins, h. c, Star Valley, 40. 

It materially helped to guide me in "the straight and narrow path." — N. G. 
Stringham, h. c. North Sanpete, 5. 

It has assisted me in gaining a testimony of the true Church of God. — Bishop 
John Van Wagoner, Jr., Wasatch, 3 9. 

It has done more for me than any other organization I have attended. — 
Taylor H. Woolley, h. c, Liberty 50. 

Its scope and possibilities as a character-builder among the young men are un- 
limited. — Morgan P. McKay, Junction, 12. 

It did much in helping to prepare me for my mission and also my labor in the 
bishopric. — A. H. Woolley, h.c, Liberty, 5 0. 

It gave me a training in presiding and teaching. It increased my love for the 
gospel. — Richard N. Lund, h. c, Paragonah, 26. 

It has afforded me a most wonderful opportunity for training in Church and 
civic activities. — Jas. W. Anderson, Fairview, 3 6. 

It has been of great benefit in helping understand and appreciate the gospel. — 
Andrew D. Mortensen, bishop, Preston, Idaho, 30. 

It has been invaluable to me in various labors in the Church and to my 
children. — Arthur F. Barnes, h. c, Salt Lake, 50. 

I have enjoyed my labors in the Magna ward. Am sorry I did not know its 
worth years ago. — Bishop James Purser, Magna, 3. 

The benefits derived therefrom have been wonderful. At the age of seventy-one 
I am still attending. — Joseph Jones, h. c, Carbon, 49. 

My connection with the M. I. A. was as a missionary in Boxelder, Weber and 
Davis stakes in the fall of 1891. — William Young, h. p. 

I have learned much of the gospel, and to sing, pray, preach, preside and to 
serve others. — Henry G. Ericksen, h. c, North Sanpete, 15. 

Guidances and trained supervision and suggestions well made during a critical 
period. — Bishop Graham H. Doxey, 3d ward, Liberty, 13. 

It was the cause of me joining the Church and through it received everything 
in life worthwhile. — Perry B. Fuller, stake presidency, Tintic. 

The full value to me of M. I. A. work cannot be fully estimated. I have 
always enjoyed the work. — Nathaniel Ashby , h. c, Deseret, 3 8. 

It has been the means of shaping my life to a certain extent. I enjoy the work, 
am a life member. — J. T. Tanner, stake presidency, Beaver, 29. 

I joined the Association when John C. Graham was president in the 1 7th ward. 
It has all been good for me. — Jesse M. Smith, h. c. North Davis, 50. 

It inspired me with a desire to labor in the Church, also made me feel a new 
responsibility to my fellowmen. — A. F. Filerup, h. c, Big Horn, 25. 

It has been the means of gaining a testimony and preparing me for my present 
•tffice. I am a life member. — Herman Twede, bishop, Springlake, 3 5. 



WHAT THEY SAY 761 

It has helped to implant in my heart a testimony of the gospel of Jesus Christ 
and to defend it before the world. — J. Austin Hunter, h. c, Tooele, 25. 

In attending M. I. A. I have enjoyed the lessons. The Bra is the best 
magazine that comes to my home. — William J. Adams, h. p., Tintic, 30. 

Administrative experience and opportunity to study topics not treated in other 
organizations have been invaluable. — S. H. Cornaby, h. c, Palmyra, 16. 

I received my early religious training in this Association. I appreciate my 
connection with it very much. — Thos. Chamberlain, h. c. Lost River, 3 3. 

By working in M. I. A. I developed a deeper insight of the value of the 
Church to me and appreciation of it. — Wilford A. Beesley, counselor stake presidency, 
Salt Lake, 25. 

If I have been able to do good to others in my years of service, it is nothing 
rompared to the good the M. I. A. has done for me. — W. W. Warnick, bishop, 
Pleasant Grove, 3 0. 

I attribute to it a great part of the preparation and inspiration I have received 
for community service, and a desire to lead a clean and useful life. — Byron O. Colton, 
stake presidency, 10. 

The ideals given me in the M. I. A. have been guiding ones. Millions could not 
buy the benefits of the experience in the M. I. A. service. — Jas. W. Lesueur, stake 
president, Maricopa, 3 3. 

One single lesson in 189 8 has been a guiding post since. Then what of all the 
other lessons? I fail to see how we could quite navigate without the M. I. A. — 
John Q. Adams, h. c, Davis. 

An opportunity for service as secretary, counselor and twelve years stake super- 
intendent, all giving me joy, much knowledge and a strong testimony of the truth. — 
John A. Lindberg, h. c, 29. 

I regard the M. I. A. as the greatest force in the formation of good character 
during the adolescent period outside of the home. — N. C. Jensen, stake supervisor, 
Teacher-Training, Los Angeles. 

I was counselor to Erastus B. Snow, president of the first association organized 
in St. George, September 26, 1875, and became president of the St. George Fourth 
ward association and later, when the four wards were consolidated, I was president 
and afterwards I was stake superintendent. Finally, in 1918, I was appointed 
General Superintendent. I have, as you see, always been associated with the 
organization and have been greatly benefited by my association with it. — A. W. 
Ivins, Counselor in the First Presidency, 5 0. 

(Others to follow in future numbers of the Era). 



Assurance 

When, through strife of men, my faith seems weak, 

And my heart with grief is torn, 
I hasten out to a mountain peak, 

As the day, in peace, is born. 
In the solemn calm, my aching heart 

Is soothed by a soul repose; 
All my doubts and fears in haste depart 

I know my Creator knows! 
Ogden, Utah. IVY WILLIAMS STONE. 




REY L. PRATT 



A NEW MEMBER, FIRST COUNCIL 
OF SEVENTY 

Elder Rey L. Pratt, president of the Mexican mission, was chosen 
one of the presidents of the First Council of Seventy, at a meeting 
of the First Presidency and the Council of the Twelve, January 
29, 1925. He was sustained in that position at the general conference 



A NEW MEMBER, COUNCIL OF SEVENTY 763 

of the Church, on April 6, 1925, and was set apart at the office 
of the First Presidency under the hands of Presidents Heber J. Grant. 
Anthony W. Ivins; and Presidents B. H. Roberts, J. Golden Kimball, 
Rulon S. Wells, Joseph W. McMurrin and Charles H. Hart of the 
First Council of Seventy. President Anthony W. Ivins officiated. 

Elder Rey L. Pratt was born in Salt Lake City, October 11, 
1878, and is the son of Helaman Pratt and Emmeline Victoria 
Billingsley Pratt. He was baptized by Richard Morris, November 
2, 1886, and confirmed, November 4, 1886, by Parley P. Pratt. 
With the family he moved to the Mexican colonies at the age of nine, 
in which place he spent his boyhood and young manhood in settling 
and pioneering that country. He served several years as a member of 
the board of the stake Sunday schools of Juarez and as one of the 
presidency of the elders' quorum of the same stake. He was married, 
in the Salt Lake Temple, August 8, 1900, by President John R. 
Winder, to Mary Stark. Thirteen children were born to them, eight 
boys and five girls; six boys and five girls are still living. All but 
four of these children were born while the parents were laboring in 
the Mexican mission. On October 4, 1906, Elder Pratt was set 
apart for missionary work in Mexico, arriving there November 1, 
1906. He labored eleven months in the mission as traveling elder, 
presiding over the Toluca conference seven months of this time. He 
succeeded President Hyrum S. Harris as president of the Mexican 
mission, on September 29, 1907, and has continued his labors in that 
capacity up to the present time. Sister Pratt has faithfully sustained 
and assisted him during all the long years of their missionary labors. 
Owing to revolutionary -conditions in Mexico, Elder Pratt with his 
family and the missionaries had to leave that country on the 5 th of 
September, 1913. He then made his headquarters, as president of the 
Mexican mission, in Salt Lake City, and continued to conduct the work 
by correspondence, through native brethren holding the Priesthood and 
who were left in the mission. This labor he continued until the 
28th of June, 1915, when, upon instructions from the First Presidency, 
he went to Manassa, Colorado, and established missionary work among 
the many Mexicans living in the United States. He was joined 
by his wife and family on the 17th of October, 1915. On November 
1, 1918, the mission headquarters were changed to El Paso, Texas. 
President Pratt with a company of missionaries went to Mexico City 
on March 1, 1921, and again formally opened up missionary work in 
that country, which has since been successfully carried on with won- 
derful results in the matter of conversions. Elder Pratt was ordained 
a Seventy on the 23d of September, 1911, by President Rulon S. Wells, 
and at the same time was set apart as one of the presidents of the 
99 th quorum of Seventy. 

Elder Pratt is a faithful worker, full of the spirit of the gospel, 
and an enthusiast as a missionary among the Lamanites and Mexicans. 
—A. 



KNOW WHAT YOU ARE BOOSTING 

By Thomas L. Martin, Professor of Agronomy, 
Brigham Young University 

Boost 

Boost, and the world boosts with you, 

Knock, and you are on the shelf, 
For the world gets sick of the man who kicks, 

And wishes he'd kick himself. 

Boost when the sun is shining, 

Boost when it starts to rain, 
If you happen to fall, don't lie there and bawl, 

But get up and boost again. 

Boost if your cause is lively. 

Boost if it's dead as sin, 
No battle is won by the man who'll run 

So stick to your job and win. 

Boost, though your heart may be heavy, 

Boost for the things sublime, 
For the chap that's found on the topmost round 

Is the booster every time. 

Breckinridge News, Cloverport, Ky. 

This poem has a thrill in it. Anyone with the desire to make 
his town a happier place in which to live is stimulated by the reading 
of this poem. However, and herein lies the trouble: People so often 
get the boosting spirit to such a high degree that they fail to see any 
weakness at all in the thing they are boosting, and persecute the man 
that dares to offer a criticism. Such an attitude is suicidal to progress. 
Many of our communities have been subjected to this exaggerated boost, 
and like an inflated baloon it has suffered the puncture, and now 
presents a sorry spectacle. 

Boosting is good if, at the time of boosting, there is an awareness 
of weaknesses, and a willingness to throw as much energy into the 
curing of these weaknesses as there is used in the boosting. Happy is 
the town or farming community that has a large percentage of such 
men. 

In order to judge grain, grasses, potatoes or animals, score cards 
are provided. Certain factors which characterize an ideal potato, for 
example, are indicated and a value in points allowed each factor. The 
points for each factor constitute the perfect score. 

Score Card for Potatoes Perfect Score 

Shape 2 5 

Size 2 

Color 1 

Eyes 1 

Flesh 10 

Blemishes 2 5 

Total 1 



KNOW WHAT YOU ARE BOOSTING 76$ 

Why can we not have a score card for our communities? Professor 
Flint, of Kansas, has presented what he terms "The Ten Tests of a 
Town." It is a town score card. The tests are as follows: (1) 
Attractiveness, (2) Healthfulness, (3) People, (4) Recreation, (5) 
Progressiveness, (6) Accessibility, (7) Employment, (8) Living, (9) 
Business, (10) Education. [He might have added one condition 
without which no community can thrive: "Hearken diligently unto the 
voice of the Lord." Read Deut. 28:1-14. — Editor. \ 

Ten points are allowed for each test. 

It would be a wonderful thing if energetic leaders in our various 
communities would utilize a test like this. * Suppose we mention some 
of the details that would come under each test: 

(1) Attractiveness. Under this heading there is considered the problem 
of shade trees, well kept lawns, desirable shrubbery, well kept front and back 
yards, cement side walks, clean streets, attractive school buildings. 

(2) Healthfulness. An unhealthy person is not only a non-producer, 
but is a burden on a producer as well. Does the town concern itself in the 
preserving of the health of its citizens? Are manure piles allowed to accumu- 
late and furnish breeding places for flies? What is the general condition of 
the outhouses? Are quarantine laws enforced? 

(3) People. Is the stock good? Is it capable of producing a high type 
of citizenship? Are the people long-lived, healthful, helpful, friendly, neigh- 
borly? Do strangers feel at home in the town because of the congeniality of 
the people of the town? 

(4) Recreation. What is the attitude of the people towards recreation? 
Do they eat together, play together at intervals? Is there a realization that 
when members of communities play there is always better work done? Are 
there fairs, picnics, festivals, holiday celebrations, in right proportions during 
the year. Is there a playground in the town, and is it properly supervised? 

(5) Progressiveness. Some of the material mentioned under recreation 
might apply under this head. What is the town doing to better its con- 
ditions? Do the other towns in the county rather look towards this particular 
town as the leadership town. Do the people take active part in the Farm 
Bureau organization? Is it a live Bureau? Do the people take active part in 
school elections, in political affairs, or do they let a few do it all then 
grumble over the results. 

(6) Accessibility. Is the town easily accessible to the outside world? 
Is it located on the railroad? Are the roads leading into the town cemented, 
well graveled and graded, or are the roads practically inpassable? 

(7) Employment. Are there many men loafing on the streets a larger 
part of the year? Are there many out of employment? Is there anything 
being done to furnish employment for its people? 

(8) Living. What are the living conditions in the houses in the town? 
Do the men of the town concern themselves with the idea of improving home 
conditions for wife. Are there automobiles in plenty? Bath tubs, furances, 
pure drinking water, electric lights, telephones in the homes? Are the people 
well dressed? 

(9) Business. Are the business houses up-to-date, neat, serviceable, 
efficient? Is there an attempt on the part of the merchants to keep on hand 
what the citizens of the town want? Are the business houses loafing places 
for men and boys? 

(10) Education. What is the general attitude of the people towards 
education? Do they support the high school authorities in their attempts 
to hold farmers' round-ups, also make a success of the Lyceum numbers that 
are brought to town? What percentage of the high school graduates go on 



766 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

to college? Is it known that the productivity of the people is proportionate 
to their education; that Denmark, Scotland, and Switzerland are far ahead 
of Spain, Russia, Turkey and Mexico in their productivity and their 
education; that the average number of years that the citizens of Massachusetts 
attend school is seven years, and the daily productivity per capita is 85c; 
that in Tennessee the people attend school but an average of 3 years, and 
their daily production per capita is 38c? 

From a survey of the effect of education on the annual labor 
income of New York farmers it was found that the farmers who had 
attended only the district school the average labor income was $318; 
of those who attended high school, the income was $622; and those 
who had attended college the average annual income was $827. 
Professor George Stewart, of the U. A. C, has made a similar survey 
in several of our Utah counties, and his findings show that farmers 
who had attended college were making $450 per year more than those 
who had attended district school, and $386 more than those who 
had attended high school. 

The effect of education on the standard of living is worthy of 
note. Eight hundred twenty-five Wisconsin farms were surveyed, 
and it was found that 12% of the farmers who had attended district 
school had lighting systems in their homes; 15% had bathrooms; 
24% had furnaces; 20% had automobiles. On the other hand of 
those who had attended college 44% had lighting systems in their 
homes, 48% bathrooms, 47% furnace heat, and 30% had automobiles. 

Education does indeed affect the standard of living as well as the 
productive power of the individual. Then there are the things one 
must keep in mind when he is judging the town from the education 
viewpoint. The people of the town should remember these things 
also. 

These ten tests of a town are valuable and should be considered 
seriously by all the members of the town. 

What a wonderful thing it would be if each community would 
take upon itself to judge itself. Find out wherein it is weak and where- 
in it is strong; then throw the combined community energy into 
strengthening of the weaknesses. Then men could boost to their 
hearts content, and the community would grow in a substantial manner, 
and all other towns in the state would admire its progress. 

This line of work should be studied by farmers, school teachers, 
and merchants. Such a line of work will be taken up by Professor 
Lowry Nelson, of the Brigham Young University this summer, during 
the summer session of the University and I understand the U. A. C. 
will give similar instruction. It would be a wonderful thing if all 
men would make an effort along these lines. I know that the com- 
ment will be that such is impossible while livelihood must be taken 
care of. But there is no limit to what the human mind and body 
can do if it will but make the effort. I am strongly advocating the 
idea that one of the greatest sources of happiness for man at the 
present time is to intellectualize his drudgery. This article has as one 
of its aims a hint in this direction. 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 



"The work of the Lord is growing all over the world; and there is 
never a month or a year but what the Church is stronger, spiritually and 
financially, than it was the month or the year previous." — President Heber J. 
Grant, in opening speech, General Conference, April, 1925. 

t 

The Rock Wall at Rockwall, Texas 

Elder Cyril R. Funk, writing from East Texas conference, says: "In 
almost every part of the American continent there still remains silent testi- 
monies, which, in my opinion, may certify to our claim that the Book of 
Mormon is correct concerning the early settlement of this country. In Rock- 
wall, Texas, there is a wall which is some 35 to 40 feet high, perpendicular 
on the outside but measuring from one foot thick at the top to several 
feet at the base. The inside is built like a number of levees. The wall is 
about four miles square and encloses the town of Rockwall. There are also 
other walls of like composition and workmanship extending in several direc- 
tions from this wall. It is interesting to note the workmanship on these 
walls. The rocks fit so snugly and the wall presents such a uniform surface 
that great skill was required in its construction. These walls are all covered 
up, undoubtedly pointing to the changes taking place in this country during 
the death of our Savior, so clearly set forth in the Book of Mormon." 




The picture shows Elder Forbes examining some of the excavated portion of the 
wall at a recent trip made to it. 

Bright Prospects in View 

A very encouraging report of the Konigsberg conference, Germany, 
dated April 3, 1925, has come to hand from Elder James C. Sharp, con- 
ference president, who says: "This far away conference is especially favored, 
for it seems that many of those wandering north with the ten tribes ages 
ago found this country a pleasing habitation and made it their home. The 
year 1924 brought much progress to this conference, including the organiza- 



768 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

tion of four live Mutual Improvement organizations and the baptism of 169 
converts. In 1925 even brighter prospects are in view. We have just enough 
persecution and opposition to keep us 'on our toes' and give the proper 
spirit of humility to carry on the work. A series of very successful branch 
conferences have been held this year, where investigators were especially given 
opportunity to hear the gospel in its purity and fulness. For instance, with 
an enrollment of less than sixty in one branch, including children, over 150 
investigators were present in one meeting. A general conference Was held 
on the 14th and 15 th of March, with mission President Fred Tadje and 
Elder John Walsh, just released from the British mission, in attendance. The 
famous Konigsberg music contributed much to the success of the conference. 
The one cry of the whole Swiss and German mission is for 'more elders,' and 
we feel that if the youth of Zion realized what a missionary experience 
really is and just what benefits it brings to the individual as well as to the 
great cause in which we should all be engaged, they would be anxious to 
come to our help. The Improvement Era is read from cover to cover by 
our elders, and many are the good things which we receive from this in- 
dispensable publication." 




Elders Konigsberg conference, left to right, top row: W. Leonard Beers, Salt Lake 
City; Preston A. Watkins, Lewis H. Hunsaker, Brigham City; Fred Bischoff, 
Salt Lake City. Middle row: Max Dotzler, Nuernberg, Bavaria; Adrian S. 
Pugmire, Salt Lake City; Harold W. Parkinson, Wellsville; Fred W. Dellenbach, 
Ogden; Russell F. Rogers, Salt Lake City; Jacob A. Rinderknecht, Providence. 
Front row: J. Dee Gardner, Sarasota, Florida; Joel J. Summerhays, Salt Lake 
City; James C. Sharp, conference president, St. Anthony, Idaho; Harold L. 
Snow, Salt Lake City; Asael E. Bell, Preston, Idaho. 

Millions Have Not Heard The Gospel 

Elder Raymond Kneale, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, reports a 
conference held on the 15 th of February, conducted by Elder Lloyd M. 
Croxford. The attendance was 90 in the afternoon and 1 1 7 in the evening. 
Quartette numbers were rendered by the elders and a duet by two of the sisters 
of the conference, besides excellent instructions that were given, the main 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 



769 



feature of which was an address by President Charles H. Hyde. He called 
attention to the fact that millions have not yet heard the gospel, and it 
was therefore a great privilege to be blessed with the Priesthood and called 
to be a servant of the Lord. He related the circumstance under which the 
wonnderful hymn, "Come, come, ye Saints," was written and which buoyed 
up the Pioneers and gave them courage to press on. President Croxford 
reported progress, showing advancement in all activities over the previous 
year. 




Elders Victorian conference, front, left to right: Floyd M. Croxford, conference 
president, Murray. Standing: Reuben A. Call, Bountiful; Russell B. Tingey, 
Brigham City, Utah; Joseph W. Ward, Malad, Idaho; Joseph Wm. Christensen, 
Ephraim; Charles G. Cowley, Salt Lake City; Donald J. Howard, Malad, Idaho; 
Harvey O. Crook, Smoot, Wyoming. 




Brother and Sister Arthur Crane of Adelaide in the South Australian conference of 
the Australian mission. They are both very faithful workers in the Church. 
Sister Florence Crane has been conference organist for a number of years and 
also a Sunday School teacher. Brother Crane is the president of the Y. M. M. 
I. A. and has acted in that position a number of years. Both are very 
zealous in the work of the Lord, being willing to do all they can for the 
comfort of the Saints and elders. — Walter D. Francis, Morgan, Utah. 



770 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

A Prayer of Faith Answered 

Elder Harold D. White of Launceston, Tasmania, reports the following 
incident: "Less than six months ago the prospects of the Launceston branch 
were anything but encouraging. For over a year and a half no members 
had been added to the fold and it was not unusual to hold a Sunday night 
meeting with four or five in attendance. It came nearly being decided to 
take the elders out of Launceston, but mission President Charles H. Hyde 
decided to give the people another chance. He visited the different con- 
ferences in the Australian mission and requested the elders and Saints to 
unite in prayer in behalf of the elders and Saints at Launceston, that their 
efforts might be fruitful. Since that time the attendance of the Sunday 
night meetings has increased to an average of about twenty-five. Five new 
members were added to the Church, and there are good prospects of more in 
the near future. The prayer of faith has been answered, and we give thanks 
•■o our heavenly Father for blessing our efforts so abundantly." 




Elders in the Launceston branch, Australia, left to right: Rollin C. Smith, Frank 
R. Pett, outgoing branch president, removed to Western Australian conference, 
Salt Lake City, Utah; Harold D. White, incoming branch president, Rockland, 
Idaho. 

I 

Meeting in the City Hall Berlin 

The beautiful, massive City Hall of Berlin was recently used to ac- 
commmodate approximately 2,000 people who attended meetings of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on the 22nd of February. Dr. 
James E. Talmage, who was on his way to the northmost missions of the 
Church, together with Fred Tadje, President of the Swiss-German mission, 
who accompanied him on his trip three weeks through Switzerland, France 
and Germany, were in attendance. In addition there were about 70 mis- 
sionaries from various sections of Germany in attendance. Twenty-six 
meetings were held in various cities of the above named countries, such as 
Lausanne, Bern, Basel, Dresden, Chemnitz, Leipzig, Stettin and Berlin. 

No difficulty was encountered in obtaining and using the City Hall 
of Berlin. On the contrary, a very courteous, helpful spirit was found. 
This spirit is indicative of a general spirit throughout Germany and is of 
praiseworthy note, when it is remembered that a few years ago it would 
have been impossible for the Church to have held a large public meeting 
in Berlin, or in any other city of Germany, much less to have used a public 
structure such as the City Hall of Berlin. From all sections of the Swiss 
and German mission comes the report that conditions are better for the 
preaching of the gospel than they have ever been before. A lack of mis- 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 771 

sionaries, however, threatens to seriously hinder our progress in 1925. We 
are hoping that this condition will be ameliorated in the very near future. 

Of additional interest was the reception of Dr. Talmage and his party 
by Prof. Belowsky of the "Naturkunde Museum." Dr. Talmage placed 
geological specimens in the Museum many years ago. Among these specimens 
were beautiful crystals of Selenite and a remarkable plate of Selenite. Prof. 
Belowsky was a visitor in Salt Lake, over 25 years ago, and while there 
was entertained by Dr. Talmage. — F. A. Smith, Basel Switzerland. 

A Missionary Convention 

A most successful convention of missionaries and conference presidents 
was held at Seattle, Washington, January 9 to 1 1 . There were about 
eighty-five missionaries there from all parts of the mission. Various sub- 
jects were treated and discussed relating to missionary problems and activities. 
The following subjects were treated: "Relation of the Mission Office to the 
Missionary," Elder Ralph B. Stratford; "Missionary Maintenance," President 
D. Crawford Houston, Southeast Washington conference; "Book of Mor- 
mon," President Rulon L. Johnson, East Washington conference; "Tract- 
ing," President G. Junius Wilson, Northwest Washington conference; 
"Country Work," President Karl W. Davenport, Southeast Washington con- 
ference; "Cottage Meetings," President L. Elmer Jackson, West Washington 
conference; "Missionary Conduct and Discipline," Elder Evan W. Ashby, 
East Washington conference; "Visiting Investigators," President C. M. 
Poulsen, British Columbia conference; "Missionary Classes," Elder Orson 
Haynie, mission secretary; "Public Speaking," President Wm. Lavern Smith, 
Oregon conference; "Mission Primaries," Sister Anna Redd, president mission 
Primaries. We feel that a great amount of good was accomplished during the 
convention. The missionaries were given a keener insight into missionary 
work and through the instructions that were given they will be able to more 
efficiently carry on their work as missionaries. The closing session Sunday 
evening was well attended. The church was crowded and many were unable 
to find seats. President B. S. Young gave a very able address on the 
"Personality of God." There was much favorable comment on his talk. 
All during the convention many beautiful musical numbers were rendered by 
missionaries and members of the Seattle branch. As an opening number to 
the convention, the Oregon conference missionaries gave a program and a 
one act play entitled, "Borrowers Day," on the evening of January 8. This 
was well received by the missionaries and Saints. — Ralph B. Stratford, 
mission secretary. 



The Work in Oregon 



Saturday, January 17, 1925, the missionaries of the Oregon conference 
met with President Brigham S. Young in semi-annual elders' conference. 
Favorable reports were given, and many interesting experiences related. Sunday, 
January 18, three public sessions were held. The morning and afternoon 
meetings were devoted to testimonies and reports of the missionaries. The 
Sunday evening service was attended by three hundred and fifty people. 
Elder Orson Haynie, who for several months past has been secretary of the 
mission as well as superintendent of mission Sunday schools and Mutuals, 
gave his farewell address. He returned to his home in Los Angeles, Calif, one 
week after conference after spending thirty-one months in the service of the 
Lord and having accomplished much good. President Young delivered a 
very instructive discourse concerning the Ideals of "Mormonism." Twelve 
Sunday Schools, three Mutual Improvement Associations, and nine Primaries 
are now being conducted regularly in the conference in connection with other 
regular services. We are enjoying success in all departments of our work. 



'72 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



The people receive us well and extend to us kindnesses in many cases. An 
illustrated lecture concerning the Book of Mormon has contributed much to 
our success. It was given formerly by Elder Orson Haynie and since his 
release by Elder Wm. Lavern Smith. Homes, halls, churches, libraries, etc., 
serve as lecture rooms. It has been presented in all eighteen times and attend- 
ed by twelve hundred people. Recently eight of the missionaries motored to 
Hood River, Oregon, where they gave a musical program and the lecture to 
a congregation of ninety people, seventy of whom are not of our faith. A 
similar program was successfully given in the chapel of the re-organized church 
at Oregon City. Two other illustrated lectures, "Temple Work" and 
"Leaders of the Church," were recently brought into the mission and will 
be given as opportunity affords. — Wm. Lavern Smith, president. 




Top row, left to right: Gladys Holton, Brigham; F. Ellis Anderson, Oak City, 
Utah; Owen T. Howard, Malad, Idaho; Donald W. Folsom, Salt Lake City; 
Fern Fagan, Lehi. Second row: Ersell Shirts, Circleville; Golden Wilcox. 
Sandy; Orson Haynie, Los Angeles, former mission secretary and superintendent 
Sunday Schools and Mutuals; Anna Reed, Blanding, mission president Pri- 
maries; Wm. Lavern Smith, Sandy, mission superintendent Sunday Schools and 
Y. M. M. I. A.; J. Moroni Ward, Portage; Dean Fortie, Heber, Utah. Third 
row: Ulyss R. Thurgood, Hooper, Utah; Calysta S. Stratford, Ralph B. Strat- 
ford, Pocatello, Idaho, mission secretary; Brigham S. Young, mission president; 
Solon A. Wood, Springville, Utah, conference president; Helen Halmilton, Sugar 
City; Orville Stanfield, Gannett, Idaho. Fourth row: Abram W. Conover, 
Provo: Winward F. Tanner, Payson; Ada Wilson, Hyrum, Utah; Newell R. 
Budge, Paris, Idaho; Maggie H. Wood, Springville; Fred W. Hollerman, Provo; 
Eilert Israelsen,, Hyrum, Utah. Fifth Row: Gwendolyn Bryner, Raymond, 
Alberta, Canada; Jens K. Nelson, Clearfield; John N. Openshaw, Paragoonah; 
Winnifred Cranney, Ogden, Utah. 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 



773 



Primary and Sunday School Organized 

The Long Beach conference, January 16-18, was held in the Huntington 
Beach chapel under direction of mission President Joseph W. McMurrin and 
other mission officials. The Relief Society met on Friday under the 
direction of President Margaret K. Miller. On Friday an inspiring Priesthood 
meeting was held where strong testimonies were borne and a wonderful 
spirit manifest. The general session was well attended by Saints, friends and 
investigators from all districts of the conference. Principles of the gospel 
were explained and President McMurrin gave several inspiring talks, re- 
minding the Saints of the blessings that will come through the serving of the 
Lord, and encouraged the missionaries to go forth with interest and enthusiasm 
in the cause. Since the conference was held two new organizations have 
come into being, one on March 8 when a Sunday School was organized 
at Terrance; and on the 14th, a neighborhood Primary at Fullerton. — 
Gwendolyn Nelson, conference clerk. 




J&o/wjBeaeA 



Missionaries Long Beach conference, top row, left to right: May Snow, Raymond, 
Alberta, Canada; Iris Coombs, Fielding; Gwendolyn Nelson, Ogden; Jane Gar- 
field, Draper, Utah; Mary Ostlund, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; LaVon Lund, 
Mt. Pleasant. Center row: John Godfrey, Clarkston; Mae Reese, Coalville; 
Ernest M. Horsley, incoming conference president, Brigham City; Joseph W. 
McMurrin, president California mission; E. Rumel Cay ton, retiring conference 
president. Salt Lake City; Louise Jeppsen, Mantua, Utah; Arthur C. Harris, 
Rigby, Idaho. Bottom row: T. Delice Andelin, Provo; Reed Rasband, Heber; 
T. T. Rasmussen, Oakley; Joseph R. Withers, Riverton; Thomas E. Cheney, 
Victor, Idaho; Floyd C. Andersen, Mantua, Utah. 

A Missionary Convention in Aarhus, Denmark 

One of the greatest events that has taken place in the Danish mission 
was the visit of President James E. Talmage, February 27-28, 1925, on 
which occasion the elders of the entire mission were gathered in conference. 



774 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

t 
On the 27th, President Talmage and John S. Hansen spoke to a congregation 
of 154 in Aarhus, at which a large proportion present were strangers. One 
baptism was performed after the meeting. On the 28th a special conference 
was held in the mission house in Aarhus. All missionaries were present 
and gave an opportunity to express their feelings and bear their testimonies. 
At the various meetings everyone felt the spirit of the gospel and only re- 
gretted that the time was so short. "We listened with pleasure to President 
Talmage's and President Hansen's instructions. We feel grateful to our 
heavenly Father for President Talmage's visit and wish him Godspeed on his 
travels through Sweden and Norway and take this opportunity of greeting 
our friends at home, with best wishes from old Denmark. The hospitality 
of Brother and Sister Niels Jensen and family of Aarhus during the visit 
will not soon be forgotten by all who came." — Brian L. Peterson. 




All the elders laboring in Denmark, back row, left to right: C. A. Malan, Ogden; 
W. M. Nielsen, Logan; T. Kilts, Ogden; H. S. Lund, Aalborg conference 
secretary; E. H. Sorensen, Salt Lake City; H. D. Jorgensen, Rigby, Idaho; 
H. M. Larsen, presiding Elder, Thisted, Ogden. Middle row: A. Mollerup, 
traveling elder Aalborg conference; W. L. Jensen, Esbjerg branch president. Salt 
Lake City; H. J. Christensen, Monroe; F. L. Curtz, E. F. Erickson, Salt 
Lake City; Peter Petersen, Randers branch president, Salt Lake City; L. E. 
Rasmussen, Midvale; H. N. Ogaard, Brigham City; A. B. C. Jensen, Odense 
branch president, Yost; O. C. Petersen, Hjorring branch president, Gunnison. 
Sitting: B. L. Petersen, Aarhus conference president; Muriel Hansen, Anna 
Hansen, president of Relief Societies; President John S. Hansen, Danish mission 
president; Elder James E. Talmage, European .mission president; Julius 
Bruun, Copenhagen conference president; Christen Larsen, Aalborg conference 
president, all of Salt Lake City. Sitting in front: W. P. Winkler, Aarhus 
conference secretary, Salt Lake City; O. W. Jensen, Union. 

Songs of Zion in New Zealand 

John B. Blackham, conference president of the Auckland conference, 
New Zealand, reports a conference held on November 2, 1924, of that 
branch, which was the first of its kind for some years: "The conference was 
highly successful and largely attended. A divine influence actuated and 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 



775 



attended all the speakers. A general Priesthood meeting was held prior to 
the opening session of the conference, at which latter ten-minute speeches 
were made by six of the elders. The branch choir rendered some of Brother 
Evan Stephens' favorite anthems with zest and spirit. A later session was 
devoted to the bearing of testimonies — a meeting that was very interesting. 
In the evening the final session convened where precious truths were pre- 
sented pertaining to the principal tenets of the gospel as restored in the 
latter days. The Saints in this part of New Zealand are comparatively few, 
but their spirit and willingness to serve fully compensate for the earnestness 
and diligence extended by the elders in their endeavors to preach the gospel. 
We enjoy the Era and the truths contained in its pages." 




Names of missionaries, standing, left to right: Rulon H. Tingey, mission secre- 
tary; F. Irvine Burnham, president Whangarei conference; Alvin A. Davis, Waikato; 
G. Lyle Palmer, Whangarei; Angus T. Wright, mission president; Arnel J. Talbot, 
Hauraki; William C. Carr, assistant mission secretary; A. Reed Halversen, president 
Hauraki conference;; George L. Young, president Mahia conference. Kneeling: 
Ezra H. Anderson, President Waikato conference; Clarence L. Rasmussen, Hauraki; 
Golden J. Webster, Whangerei; John B. Blackham, president Auckland conference; 
LeRoy B. Jex, Aukland. (Sister Wright was not present when the picture was taken, 
but was included as one of the fourteen missionaries from Zion present at the con- 
ference.) 

News from South African Mission 

Splendid results attend the efforts of the elders and Saints of the South 
African mission. Being the greatest distance from the headquarters of the 
Church, we are deprived of the spiritual strength and blessings received by 
many other missions, which come from occasional visits from the presiding 
authorities of the Church. The Lord, however, does direct the labors of those 
who are called to preside and officiate by virtue of the holy Priesthood 
throughout the nations of the earth. This truth is substantiated by the results 
obtained by the good men who in all humility and prayerfulness have directed 
the work of this mission. The South African mission consists of five con- 
ferences. The allotted quota of missionaries is twenty-five. At the present 
time we have but fourteen. Three of the conferences have regular organized 



776 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



branches. This organization tends to greater efficiency in the conferences. 
The Relief Society and the Mutual Improvement Associations are progressing 
effectively, due to the untiring and unselfish labors of Sister Magdalen 
Sessions. In order to make the M. I. A. more effective and extend its 
influence into all the branches of the mission, Elder Waldemar Young 
Clayton was recently appointed mission superintendent of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association. 

The annual elders' conference and convention was held this year in 
Johannesburg, the Gold City of the world and one of the richest cities. The 
convention served a two-fold purpose; that of dedicating our new chapel 
recently erected there and the planning and outlining our year's work. The 
evening prior to the convening for conference a grand concert was rendered 
under the auspices of the M. I. A. The chapel was filled to its capacity. 
The convention opened January 3 1 at 9:00 a. m. with an elders' testimony 
meeting. Mission President James Wiley Sessions presided and conducted. 
The spirit of love, charity, humility was manifested in the burning testimonies 
of the elders. Such bonds of strength, vitalized through the keeping of God's 
commandments can never be broken. The dedicatory service was held Sun- 
day, February 1, 1925. Once more the chapel was crowded with people, 
curious and anxious to see and hear the services of the Latter-day Saints, 
and to learn more of their teachings. Some splendid addresses were given 
at this meeting. With the united faith and prayers of all assembled, Presi- 
dent James Wiley Sessions offered the dedicatory prayer. The work of the 
convention was then divided and assigned to various committees to study 
the problems and outline the year's program. At the close of the conference, 
January 5, plans were outlined and put into proper form to be sent to the 
missionaries as a guide to follow throughout the year. — Elder George Pug- 
mire, Jr., president Cape conference. 



f: t 






Missionaries attending the African conference, standing: Leon S. Saunders, Clarence L. 
Rockwood, Keith P. Heiner of Salt Lake City; Wilford D. Harris, Ogden, 
president Natal conference; George Pugmire, Pocatello, Idaho, president Cape 
conference; Cornelius Vanderende, Salt Lake City; Royal D. Crook, Heber, 
president Port Elizabeth conference; H. Lorden Baker, Salt Lake City. Sitting: 
Kenneth C. Woodruff, Salt Lake City; Leonard N. Judkins, Ogden, president 
Transvaal conference; Kenneth D. Wright, Salt Lake City, president Bloemfontein 
conference; Sister Magdalen Funk Sessions, president Young Ladies M. I. A. 
and Relief Societies; Mission President James Wiley Sessions, Pocatello, Idaho; 
mission secretary, Waldemar Young Clayton, Salt Lake City; Miles P Romney, 



MESSAGES FROM THE MISSIONS 



777 



Salt Lake City, the architect and builder of the new chapel; Hyrum L. Crane, 
Pocatello, Idaho. 

Progress in East Texas 

Missionaries of East Texas and Arkansas met on the 28th of February, 
to the first of March in conference. A priesthood meeting was held on 
the first day when President S. O. Bennion gave timely instructions con- 
cerning their work. From the reports of the missionaries it appears that the 
cause is progressing rapidly in that part. Many meetings have been ar- 
ranged for the summer months and the missionaries are determined to press 
forward in the cause of truth, with faith that many will enter into the 
fold. — Joseph T. Lindsay, president of the East Texas conference. 




Front row, left to right; Jos. T. Lindsay, president, East Texas conference; 
W. L. Crabb, former conference president; E. L. Christiansen, pricipal of Kelsey 
School; Luella Christiansen, Baby Francis; LaVerne J. Stone, Minerva Jensen, 
teachers of Enoch School; James A. Davis, Pres. Arkansas conference; R. D. 
Iverson, former conference president. Middle row: O. Gubler, A. R. Forbes, V. J. 
Holmes, W. L. Kirkham, W. W. Potter, C. R. Funk, Floyd Humphries, E. S. Evans. 
Top row: A. L. Rosenhall, O. W. Bunker, Ray Oman, Darrel Welling, LeGrand 
Rassmusson, S. C. Perry, R. P. Green. S. L. Gillette, E. H. Anderson. 



Bruce Barton, in an article in The American Magazine, gives 
the result of an interview with Patrick Crowley, president of the 
New York Central Railroad, with its 20,000 miles of track, serving 
more than 56,000,000 people. He says Mr. Crowley began as a 
messenger boy with the railroad. Now before you read any further, 
shut your eyes and make a guess as to the man's attitud'e toward 
tobacco. You think he doesn't smoke? Well, you're right, for that's 
just what Bruce Barton says about him. — Will H. Brown, Oakland, 
Calif. 




PRESIDENT CHARLES W. PENROSE 

Born, London, England, February 4, 1832; 
Salt Lake City, May 16, 1925. 



died, 



THE PASSING OF PRESIDENT CHARLES 
WILLIAM PENROSE 

It is with deep sadness and sincere feeling of regret that we 
record the death of our beloved leader and friend, President Charles 
W. Penrose, which occurred at his home, 222 South 9th East, Salt 
Lake City, at 9:30 p. m., Saturday night, May 16, 1925. He lived 
to an extremely advanced age, having passed his 93d birthday on 
February 4 last, an age greater than is allotted to the average man, and 
yet we were loath to part with him. His cherry spirit was known to 
us, his wise counsel, his brilliant intellect, and the warmth of his 
splendid and appealing testimony of the gospel. It seems amazing 
that this man's life should have extended over practically the entire 
period of the history of the Church, to within less than two years from 
its beginning. Brigham Young had not yet been baptized when Charles 
W. Penrose was born in London, England, on the 4th of February, 
1832, and the entire membership of the Church would hardly have 
filled one of our modern ward chapels. The great length of his life 
attests the strength and endurance of the sturdy English stock from 
which he came. It must have been a glorious privilege to him to have 
been united in his youth with the cause of building up the Church and 
kingdom of God, and to see it grow and prosper, and extend its borders 
into every land, and himself to reach a high and influential position, 
with his name loved and honored by all. He will be forever remem- 
bered as a valiant, capable and worthy soldier in the cause of Christ. 

With his voice, and with his pen, President Penrose labored un- 
tiringly as a defender of the faith and an exponent of its doctrines 
for almost seventy-four years. His masterful pamphlets, "Why I am a 
Mormon," "What the Mormons Believe," "Mormon Doctrine," 
"Priesthood and Presidency" and "Rays of Living Light," have 
been, and will continue to be, distributed by the tens of thousands. 
But his chief claim to be long remembered will no doubt rest with 
those glorious songs of his, "Oh ye mountains high," "School thy 
feelings, oh, my brother," and many others. They have struck 
a responsive chord in every heart, and will be sung and read by the 
Latter-day Saints when the facts pertaining to the author's life may 
have faded in the dim mists of time. 

Also great praise is due him for his thousands of writings for 
papers and magazines in defense and advocacy of the Saints and the 
doctrines of the Church. 

In summing up the life of President Penrose we may say that his 
chief characteristic was his determination to do right at all times and 
live according to the precepts of his religion. He was persistent, 



780 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

determined, ever at work in the line of his duty. To one who knew 
him well he said recently, " 'Mormonism' is as much a part of me 
as my arm, my leg, or my heart;" and again, "Do right because 
it is right, and not because anyone tells you to do it." 

On the day of his death President Heber J. Grant paid him this 
tribute: 

"President Penrose was one of the greatest defenders of the faith 
that the Church has ever had. He was one of the most able ex- 
pounders of the doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints by pen and word of mouth. For ten long years he labored 
without purse or scrip to spread the gospel in England, and later re- 
turned to that same field as president of the European mission, having 
charge of all the activities of the Church from Scandinavia on the 
north to South Africa, on the south. A great and good man has 
passed to his reward." 

The editors of the Era regret that this number of the magazine 
was practically made up for printing before the death of President 
Penrose, hence, the place and space that his passing deserves could not 
be included in this number. Further attention will be given in a future 
number. — P. N. 



My Baby 

My heart beat with a throbbing pain 

When my baby passed away! 
Within my throat, in a refrain 
That choked me o'er and o'er again 
Were words that never could be said 
About my wee one, too soon dead — 
Yet Hope's bright star shone overhead 

When my baby passed away! 

What could a mother's love foresee. 

When my baby passed away? 
All that a fervent love could be 
Was bound up in this gift to me! 
Alas! a mother's heart must feel 
Realities of woe and weal — 
Shall not a future yet reveal 

Why my baby passed away? 

Some purpose, I had faith to learn, 

When my baby passed away, 
Is cause for early life return: 
We may not yet the cause discern, 
But this much faith to me is given, 
Though heart be sad, with sorrow riven 
A part of me went up to Heaven 

When my baby passed away! 
Payson, Utah JOSEPH LONGKING TOWNSEND 



Editors' (Table 



Our Jubilee 

The Improvement Era for June and July is and will be devoted 
largely to the organization, the past labors, present activities and 
visions of the future, of the Y. M. M. I. A., whose fiftieth anniversary 
is being celebrated, in the annual conference programs during June 
6-10. The past, present and future of this splendid organization will 
also be vividly depicted in sermon, speech and song, and in pageant 
and parade. 

In reviewing the fifty years that are gone, we are grateful to the 
Lord for past achievements, for present advantages and for future 
prospects. The organization has had a steady growth, though at 
intervals its advancement has been retarded frequently by difficulties 
and indifferences placed in its way. However, we have overcome, 
thrived and grown. The fundamentals of the organization have been 
adhered to, and with faith in God and his great latter-day work, the 
membership has been enabled to work out their problems, and do 
a great deal of good among the youth of the Latter-day Saints. 

All through the West, today, there are thousands of people, many 
of them leaders in the Church and state, whose laudable ambitions were 
first awakened, who received their first inspiration of faith in God 
and his great latter-day work, and who were first given opportunity 
for expression, through the Mutual Improvement Association. It 
now numbers nearly nine hundred units. Membership in this organiza- 
tion has given the young people wonderful opportunities for advance- 
ment in obtaining knowledge, for self-improvement, and for learning 
the principles of the gospel. It has opened the way for them and given 
them great pleasure through association with their fellows, religiously, 
educationally, and socially. It has been a source of much enjoyment 
and progress to those who have taken part in its studies, exercises, 
and recreations. 

At present the membership, 50,000 in numbers, is greater and 
stronger, both in intellectual ability, and we trust in faith, than it has 
ever been before; and, while the activities are somewhat different, we 
are still holding up as our standards the fundamentals that were 
visioned to the organization by President Brigham Young, at its incep- 
tion; namely, faith in God, in the restoration of the gospel to Joseph 
Smith, the prophet, and in obtaining an individual testimony of the 
divinity of Jesus Christ, of his gospel message, and of the truth and 
magnitude of God's great Latter-day work; furthermore, we seek to 
be faithful and staunch helps to the priesthood of the Church in further- 
ing its mighty mission. 



782 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

Whatever may happen in the future, we are certain that, with the 
foundation laid, ready to be built upon, and with the faithful, 
staunch general and local leaders at their head, the obtaining of an 
individual testimony by the young people of the Church of the 
divinity of Jesus Christ, and of the truth of his restored gospel, will 
always be the leading and living light in all their activities. Nothing 
is more precious for eternal welfare and earthly success than such a 
testimony. The future of the Y. M. M. I. A. is bright with promise 
and indicates firmer growth, and greater achievement than in the past. 
The next fifty years give promise of a wonderful fruitage. In all the 
land, these organizations are entitled to exult with joy in the triumph 
of the past, to be delighted with and make the best of the present, and 
to behold glorious and inspiring visions of the future. God grant 
their utmost and happiest fulfilment. — A. 



"Unanswered Yet" 

Marshal von Hindenburg, the famous leader of Germany's de- 
feated armies during the war of 1914-19, was elected president of the 
German republic, on Sunday, April 26, 1925. He is the first 
president actually elected by the people of that country. He received, 
14,639,399 votes, out of a total of 30,345,540 — considerable less 
than one-half, but as the opponents divided their votes between Marx, 
the centrist candidate, and Thaelmann, the communist, Hindenburg 
succeeded in obtaining a plurality. Opinions about the probable 
effects of the Hindenburg victory are divided. In official circles, both 
here and in Europe, there is a tendency to veil in optimistic phrases 
whatever apprehensions may exist; in France alone is the fear openly 
expressed that this election is the turning point of Germany back to- 
wards Kaiserism and Prussian militarism. The new president lost no 
time declaring his ideas. He said: "Let no one by any chance 
imagine that henceforth I shall take orders from any party." He also 
exclaimed, when informed of the result of the vote: "The real work 
has just begun." Time alone can interpret these oracular announce- 
ments. 

The circumstance of his coming into power reminds us of an 
incident, which illustrates the uncertainty of the situation. It is related 
by Alice Louise Reynolds, editor of the Relief Society Magazine, who 
has been touring Europe for nearly a year. In her travels in France, 
she took a trip, of course, to the war-stricken districts; in her com- 
pany was Professor and Mrs. Barker and their four-year-old son. 
She writes: 

"As we traversed the war-stricken country we were made sad by the 
revelation of the suffering and destruction. Perhaps the questions put by the 
little four-year-old son of Professor and Mrs. Barker are as illuminating as 
anything we can here include. Seeing the houses in heaps and sometimes 



EDITOR'S TABLE 783 

great holes gouged in their sides, he asked: 'Mama, why did the mans shoot 
the houses?' Finally, to his insistent query, his mother replied: 'Because 
they were naughty.' For some time he appeared to be turning the matter 
over in his little mind, then he put this question: 'Mama, will the naughty 
mans shoot the houses any more?' 

"The mother did not answer this last question, neither do those who 
are counted the most wise of the earth." 

"A little child shall lead them," and, too, shall -ask such questions 
as stagger the sages among men. — A. 



The Motive in Education 

Frequently the motive for obtaining an education is expressed by 
educators and others to be the fact that an educated person can make 
more money than one not educated. Emphasis is placed upon the 
making of money and that is held out as the purpose of higher educa- 
tion to such an extent that frequently young people seek a higher edu- 
cation because through it they believe they can obtain much greater 
annual income. The earning power of the individual is emphasized 
instead of the true purpose, which should be the building of sterling 
character and good citizenship. The youth should be taught that 
greater than making money and enjoying a higher standard of selfish 
living is character and good citizenship. To learn how to get ahead 
in the financial life is very commendable and praise-worthy, but a 
college education, especially when obtained largely by public taxation, 
as with us, should have a higher motive than mere money-getting, 
and all this for the safety of the commonwealth and maintenance 
of good government. The purpose of the public schools should be 
to teach boys and girls, not only the value of money and manners, but 
first and foremost, to impress them with their duty to God, morality, 
their country, and with service to their fellows. Higher education is 
not for the aggrandizement of the individual, but to the end that will 
serve the nation and the community. It is not for the purpose of 
devoting oneself selfishly to personal scholarship or to financial suc- 
cess in life. Religion, morals and knowedge are necessary for good 
government and the happiness of mankind, and to this end and by 
these means, young men and young women should be encouraged to 
obtain an education, and not for the reason that they can live better 
and make more money and selfishly fulfil their ambitions. Higher 
education is absolutely necessary, but those few who are privileged to 
obtain it from the sweat and labor of the people must spend their time, 
at least to a certain extent, for other than selfish purposes, and for the 
good of the community. The duty of the favored small percent of 
people who are given the college education should be to illustrate the 
blessedness of true leadership in religion, morals, and unselfish de- 
votion to the community and to the stability of our government and 
citizenship instead of placing emphasis on what a man can make 



784 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

above those who have not had the privilege. He should dismiss from 
his mind that, as a concomitant of a higher education, he can make 
more money, have better privileges, so as to live high and furnish his 
home with luxurious bathrooms, fine furnaces, automobiles, elaborate 
lighting and other selfish luxuries and indulgences. These he should 
have enough of to make himself and his comfortable, but his real 
business is to be a leader in righteousness among the people, and to 
serve them diligently and sacrifice for them. — A. 



From Darkness to Light 



Standing alone on the brink of a mountain, 
Viewing with rapture the break of new morn, 

Drinking great draughts at morning's fresh fountain, 
Forgetful of raiment, though tattered and torn. 

'Twas thus that I saw him, in deep contemplation 
Of beautiful sunrise — the birth of new day, 

His countenance beaming as new revelation 
Entered his soul, borne by each shining ray. 

Up through the suff'rings of deep tribulation, 
Mounted his soul, as the light of new day 

Bathed his spirit. The while his oblations 
Reached up to God, for thus did he pray: 

"Father of Life and Light! King of the universe! 
Long have I traveled in darkness below, 
Doubting thee, shunning thee, King of the universe, 
Shutting thee out, that my soul should not know. 

"Men of God talked to me. Hypocrites railed at me. 
Each one pretending to point out the way, 
But still I plodded — even yet could not see 
Thy great Divinity, thy infinite sway. 

"Sucr were the faults of men, such their hypocricies, 
Such was the service men gave to thy Name, 
My consciousness sensed that their words were but mockeries 
And filled my poor spirit with anguish and shame. 

"I had yet to learn thou hadst greater witnesses 
Than vain and fickle man, who tends to stray 
Far from the simple paths, away from the principles 
Of nature, her marvels, her lessons, her way. 

"This morning I saw thy hand lift a blade of grass, 
Yesterday saw, too, the birth of a dove. 
I've witnessed the passing of beautiful spirits — yes, 
Smiling and lovely, soothed by thy Love. 

"The hills and rocks, the forests and streams 

Held communion with me. And while I yet listened, 
Their still voices whispered, and I saw in my dreams 
All of thy handiwork, — all as if visioned. 

"Father of Life and Light! King of the universe! 
Long will I travel in light here below, 
And with nature's hosts, O! King of the universe! 
Thee will I worship here, thee will I KNOW!" 
Idaho Falls, Idaho LEWIS A. LEE 



Youthful Ward Teachers 

By Elder J. Bert Sumsion, Oneida Stake, Banila, Idaho 

"Hello sir, we have been out teaching tonight. Three of us young 
fellows surely had some time. From now on we will have to do better than 
we have ever done in our lives," said the youthful ward teacher, as he 
dashed into my room. 

"Well, when did you become a ward teacher?" I asked. 

"Just the other day," replied this freshman of the high school. 
"Carisle, Clyde, and I just finished our district. We surely had a fine time. 
Oh! it seems good to have a job in the Church." 

"Goodness, what did you do, and what did you say, may I ask?" 

"Carisle, Clyde and I hitched 01' Buck to the buggy and went over to 
Anderson's. As soon as we arrived we told Mr. Anderson we were the 
teachers that the bishop had sent. He smiled when he saw us three young 
fellows; nevertheless, he called his family together and we began our meeting 
by singing, 'Put your shoulder to the wheel,' after which I prayed. Then 
I called on Clyde to speak. After he finished, Carisle stood back of his 
chair and talked a little while. Then I got up and spoke for a few minutes. 
Then I called on various members of the family, but they did not speak, so 
we sang another song from the Sunday School Song Book. We then had 
prayer. We shook hands with all of them and wished them success and the 
blessings of the Lord, then went." 

"How long did your meeting last?" I inquired. 

"Oh! about, O! thirty minutes, I guess," he answered. 

"Why do you like ward teaching?" I questioned. 

"Because it gives me a chance to study a subject, and then a chance to 
go and tell what I have learned. I can see that such a job is just what 
I need. I'll be glad when the time comes to go again." 

"Did you visit your entire district," I asked. 

"Yes, but we did not find Tanners at home. So we tacked a sign on 
the door, 'You were visited by three jolly good fellows, we took nothing 
and left nothing, your ward teachers will call again'." 

"Did you have a subject?" I interrogated. 

"Yes, Bishop Miles told us to read and study the 13th chapter of 
Corinthians, that we would find the subject of Charity discussed by the 
Apostle Paul." 

I think these sixteen-year-old boys did their work efficiently for the 
following reasons: 

1. They went out on time, they finished their work on time, so that the 
ward clerk could fill out his report on time. They made possible a 
100 per cent visit. 

2. They went out willingly and carried the spirit of enthusiastic workers. 
The group was not detained by tardy members. 

3. They were unafraid, full of the Spirit, and courageous. The territory 
over which they traveled was muddy, it was raining and the night was 
dark. The weather conditions did not prevent them from doing their duty. 

4. They did that which the bishop told them to do. They studied the 
scriptures. They were prepared to give the Lord a chance to bring ideaj 



786 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

to their remembrance. The Lord was not required to pound on an empty 
barrel. 

5. They preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. They did not talk sugar beets, 
drainage, pure-breds, politics, fences, bank accounts, sheep, cattle, pigs, 
but they talked about charity — one of the great principles of the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. 

6. They gained permission to hold a meeting in the house. They sang a 
song with the family, they prayed with the family, they preached to the 
family, they gave the family a chance to speak, they sang a closing song with 
the family and in benediction left the blessings of the Lord with the 
household. 

7. They held a short meeting and moved on. They did not tire the family, 
nor did they keep the younger members thereof from getting their school 
lessons. They did not wear out their welcome by wearing out brother 
Anderson's door knob with prolonged good-byes. 

8. They were serious, dignified and optimistic. ' None of them uses 
tobacco, nor coffee, nor tea. The failure to keep the word of wisdom robs 
a "Mormon" of his dignity, takes away optimism; and, with the departure 
of the Spirit of the Lord, he can not be serious in his work. 

9. They were efficient because they were thrilled with the work. The 
spirit of "preparedness" — the Spirit of the Lord rested upon them. 

10. They considered the work an opportunity, and not a drudgery, an un- 
welcome task. 

11. They were efficient because their work bears the ear-marks and the spirit 
of this song preachment: 

"I'll serve the Lord while I am young, and in my early days, 
Devote the music of my tongue to my Redeemer's praise, 
I'll praise his name that he has giv'n me parentage and birth 
Among the most beloved of heav'n that dwell upon the earth." 

The Melchizedek Priesthood Study 

Subject: Doctrines of the Church. Text: A Study of the Articles of Faith 

LESSON 28: THE DISPENSATION OF ISRAEL 
Text: Chapters 17, pages 314-322 

LESSON 29: THE DISPENSATION OF ISRAEL (Continued) 
Text: Chapters 17, pages 322-326 

LESSON 30: THE GATHERING OF ISRAEL 
Text: Chapter 18, pages 328-336 

LESSON 31: THE GATHERING OF ISRAEL (Continued) 
Text: Chapter 18, pages 33 6-341 

LESSON 32: ZION 
Text: Chapter 19, pages 345-352 

LESSON 33: THE LATTER-DAY ZION 
Text: Chapter 19, pages 352-354 

LESSON 34: CHRIST'S REIGN ON EARTH 
Text: Chapter 20, pages 35 6-363 



PRIESTHOOD QUORUMS 787 

New Missions 

New missions were created on May 7, 1 925 ; it was ordered that the states 
of Minnesota and the Dakotas, and adjacent provinces in Canada will be one 
mission, with Elder John Q. Allred as president. Elder Allred was president 
of the Manitoba conference from October 8, 1919 to October 6, 1922, 
and before that he was the bishop of the First ward, Raymond, Alta. 

The Swiss-German mission is to be divided, and Elder Hugh J. Cannon, 
president of Liberty stake, is to preside over the new German mission. 
Elder Cannon has labored as a missionary in Germany and presided over 
the German mission, and also over the Swiss-German mission, when the two 
were united. 

Bishop J. Howard Jenkins, of the Ogden 13th ward, is to succeed 
Elder Angus T. Wright as president of the New Zealand mision. He is to 
leave for his field of labor some time during the latter part of July. 



The Vile Cigarette 

The cigarette is a beastly thing. 

It leaves a deathly, poisonous sting. 

Destroys your sense of taste and smell, 

Your appetite and health as well. 

It lessens your desire to do right, 

Builds a false and craving appetite. 

Makes you a slave instead of a man. 

On your future it places a ban. 

It steals your time, weakens your will, 

Lessens your chance of positions to fill, 

Makes you stupid and often late, 

With a sluggish feeling you hesitate. 

Retards your progress, you often stop 

Down at the bottom, instead of the top, 

Weakens your courage, fills you with fear, 

From real advancement it does you steer. 

Instead of promptness it makes you wait, 

And for promotion you're not on the slate, 

Lowers your vitality, beclouds your brain, 

It always spells loss, never spells gain, 

At the rear you stand, you should he in lead. 

A little exertion and you could be freed 

From this horrible monster that binds you tight, 

Makes you go wrong when you would do right. 

It fills your body with the seeds of death; 

Inhaling the smoke you exhale foul breath. 

You send out an odor that others detest, 

From this slave-driver you're never at rest. 

It destroys your manhood, your self-respect: 

What else! from the foul weed, could you expect? 

Now tell me, I pray, in English plain, 

Is there anything worthy, or good to gain? 

O, why then not stop, if you use the weed, 

And you who do not, oh let me plead 

With you, to refrain from even the touch, 

Of the vile, foul thing, that destroys so much. 

C. H. Davis 

Brigham City, Utah 



QyVLutual Work 



The M. I. A. Conference and Jubilee Celebration 

The work of providing a program of exrecises for the Jubilee celebra- 
tion is being pushed with increasing interest, and by the time the celebration 
takes place, the preparation will have been perfected, and each department 
will have a program commensurate with the important occasion. 

The reception on Saturday night, June 6, will be given in four distinct 
places, and a program will be carried on in each, so that all may be entertained. 

Religious services will be held all day Sunday, June 7, with attractive 
programs and speakers. On Sunday morning Superintendent George Albert 
Smith and President Martha H. Tingey will deliver addresses, and Junius 
F. Wells and Maria Y. Dougall will speak on "President Brigham Young's 
Vision, the Struggles and Achievements, in its Realization;" and Superin- 
tendent Richard R. Lyman, on "Appreciation of the Past, Glory of the 
Present." 

President Heber J. Grant will preside at the 2 o'clock meeting, the 
Presidency of the Church being in charge; music and song by the Tabernacle 
choir, A. C. Lund director. Evening services will be addressed by Orson F. 
Whitney on the M. I. A. 1925-26 Slogan: "We stand for an individual 
testimony of the divinity of Jesus Christ," the meeting being under the 
auspices of the M. I. A. and Primary. 

Officers and workers' meetings will be held all day on Monday, June 
8; luncheon to superintendents at Hotel Utah, 12 noon. The pageant de- 
picting the Past, Present and Future of the Association will be presented 
Monday evening, and is one of the most important events of the big 
Jubilee celebration. It was prepared under direction of a committee of 
the General Boards, who are: George H. Brimhall, chairman; Thomas Hull, 
W. O. Robinson, Axel A. Madsen, Claude C. Cornwall, Lewis T. Cannon, 
Elen Wallace, Lucy Smith, Charlotte Stewart, Jennie K. Mangum and Ruth 
May Fox. It was written by W. O. Robinson, Claude C. Cornwall, Elen 
Wallace and Ruth May Fox. It is being organized and directed by E. H. 
Eastmond, pageant master; and W. O. Robinson, dramatic director. B. 
Cecil Gates and Evangeline T. Beesley are in charge of ths music and are 
organizing a chorus and an orchestra. Professor Gates is preparing much of 
the music for the pageant. A most excellent resume of M. I. A. work will 
be presented in poetic and symbolic representation at this pageant. Officers' 
meetings will be held during the day to discuss problems of the association; 
also on Tuesday, June 9, in addition to tryouts for contests. 

Under the supervision of Executive Director Oscar A. Kirkham there 
will be a band contest, also a contest in M Men's Public Speaking and Male 
Quartets and choruses, and Gleaner girls' public speaking and ladies' choruses, 
which contests will take place on Tuesday, June 9, the grand tryouts in the 
afternoon, when the two winners in each event will be chosen ; and the 
grand finals, in the evening. Provision will be made for large halls in 
which to hear both the tryouts and the grand final contest, giving the general 
public opportunity to attend. The Improvement Era Jubilee prizes will be 
awarded to the winners this same evening. 

As to the grand parade, Wednesday, June 10, it is gradually assuming 
gigantic proportions. Sixteen M. I. A. bands have reported their intention 
to take part in the parade, and preparation for a magnificent showing is 
being made. From all appearances there will be an enormous attendance of 
people to witness and take part in the procession. 



MUTUAL WORK 789 

M. I. A. Summer Programs 

Special Joint Program for Sunday Evening, June 7 

While the great Jubilee is in progress in Salt Lake City, every Asso- 
ciation in the Church not privileged to attend, should present a program at 
home in keeping with the occasion. This program is in honor of the early 
officers of the two organizations. All who have served in the M. I. A. 
cause should be invited to be present and should be shown special distinction. 

The Mutual Improvement Association 

For June 7, 1925 

I. Origin of the Mutual Improvement Associations: 
In the Church: 

a. The Y. M. M. I. A. (See Y. M. M. I. A. Hand Book, page 
9 ; also Era, Vol. 1 , numbers 1 and 2 ; also Era for June and 
July, 1925, Vol. 28, numbers 7 and 8. 

b. The Y. L. M. I. A. (See Youny Ladies' History, page 9 ; 
Y. L. Hand Book, page 7. 

In the Ward: 

Prepare and have read a short history of the origin of the 
ward associations. 
II. Purpose: 

a. To establish a testimony of the divinity of Jesus Christ and 
the divine mission of Joseph Smith. 

b. To establish high ideals of character and intellectual attain- 
ment. 

c. To provide leisure time activities. 
III. Its Accomplishments: 

Have men and women testify as to the influence of the M. I. 
A. on their lives. (See "What they say," Era, May, June, 
July, etc.) 
This program is in honor of the early officers of the two organizations, 
who should be given prominence. 

SUNDAY NIGHT JOINT PROGRAMS 

(For Summer Months) 

Joy in the Worth-While 

i 
For July, 1925 

Joy in an appreciation of the common-place. 
Wonderful is the world. 

Wonderful is life to him who finds joy in the common-place (not 
the new or the extraordinary) . 

Let us never forget the tremendousness of the ordinary. (Familiarity 
with great things breeds contempt only in contemptible minds.) 
1 . Beauties of Nature. 

a. Mountains, valleys, fruitful fields. 

b. Trees, vines, shrubs, putting on leaves at the call of spring. 

c. The fruition of the harvest time. 
II. Man's Handiwork. 

Electricity, telephone, radio, automobile, steamship, printing press. 
III. Life, Growth and Yearning to Attain. 
(See Tennyson's poem Ulysses.) 



790 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

IV. Prayer. 

The marvel of the privilege of communing with God. 
V. Kindly, Thoughtful Deeds. 
How wonderful is love. 

Joy in the Appreciation of People 

For August, 1925 

Other human beings are ultimately the most interesting and pleasant 
experiences in our lives. The finest things that happen in our lives are more 
appreciated if our dear ones are present. 

I. The Study of Great Men Influences our Ideals and Lends Inspiration 
to our Lives. 

a. History. 

b. Contemporaries. 

1. World leaders. 

2. Great leaders of our Church. 

"We cannot look upon great men in any way without gaining 

something by them." 
"One comfort is that great men, taken up in any way, are 

profitable company." 
"A man's religion is the important thing of him and creates 

what he is." — Carlyle. 
II. Appreciation of Our Friends and Associates Makes Our Happiness. 

a. Association has put business production on a sufficient scale 
to feed and provide for a growing population. 

1 . Competitors meet for advancement and help. 

2. A great cause is helped by being appreciated of others. 

b. Our friends are our richest possessions. 

1 . Superior enjoyment in the presence of friends. 

2. Enjoyment of service to and sharing with friends. 
III. Our Loved Ones in the Home are the Most Essential Factors in Our 

Lives and Characters. 

a. We learn most of life's habits and attitudes in the home. 

1 . Care in our treatment to parents, brothers, sisters and 
children. 

2. Give credit and encouragement. 

b. They are always most important in our lives. 

1 . They are the support we lean on until we get strong 
enough to take care of ourselves. Our responsibilities 
to them. 

2. In a crises they are absolutely dependable. If culti- 
vated and properly respected, they make the best chums. 

. 3. Our whole day is brightened, and our entire life is il- 
luminated by the cheer of a happy home. 

Joy in an Appreciation of God's Handiwork 

For September, 1925 
I. The Heavens. 

a. The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament 
showeth his handiwork, Psalms 19-1. 

b. The immensity of space. 

c. The wonders of the firmament. 
II. The Earth. 

a. The glory of the everlasting hills. 

b. The beauty of the fields and flowers. 

c. The wonders of the bird and the animal kingdom. 



MUTUAL WORK 791 

III. Man. 

a. "What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of 

man, that thou visitest him? For thou hast made him a little 
lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and 
honor. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of 
thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet." Psalms 
8:4-6. 

b. "As man is, God once was; and as God is, man may become." 

c. His mind, his body, his spirit. 

The M. I. A. Slogan for 1925-26 

The General Boards of the M. I. A. have adopted the following slogan 
for the associations for 1925-26: 

We stand for an Individual Testimony of the Divinity of Jesus Christ. 

The evening session on Sunday during the June Jubilee conference 
will be devoted largely to the discussion of this subject by Elder Orson F. 
Whitney, of the Council of the Twelve. The slogan is a very timely one, 
since much doubt throughout the country and the world is thrown at 
present upon the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ, his miracles, the efficacy 
of his atonement, and his mission as Redeemer of the world. 

Prizes Named 

The Improvement Era winners for Jubilee music and literature are 
named as follows, the judgment having been made by competent and able 
judges in all cases. The poem, the scout camp song, the hymn, the essay, 
the short play and the short story will be produced in July number of the 
Era. 

For the poem, "The Triumph of the May," the prize goes to Bertha A. 
Kleinman, Mesa, Arizona, with honorable mention for the poem, "Mountains 
and Seasons," by O. Woodruff Bunker, Little Rock, Arkansas. 

The prize for the short story will be announced later. 

The prize for the essay, "The Business of Youth," was awarded to 
Venice Farnsworth Anderson, Salt Lake City, with honorable mention for 
the essay, "Inner Dimensions," by Ramona W. Cannon, Salt Lake City. 

For the best hymn with music, the prize was awarded to Evan Stephens, 
Salt Lake City, the title being, "Glory to God." 

For the scout camp song, "The Boy Scouts of America," with original 
music the prize was awarded to Pearl Timpson, Pocatello, Idaho, with 
honorable mention for the poem, "Round the Campfire," without music, by 
O. E. Howell, Preston, Idaho. 

For the short play, "The Unequal Yoke," Blanche Kendall McKey, 
Ricks College, Rexburg, Idaho, was awarded the prize. 

For the best cover design, the prize was awarded to John E. Whowell, 
4329 Kamerling Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The modified design is used 
for this issue of the Improvement Era, drawing by De Bouzek Engraving Co., 
Salt Lake City. 

We are grateful to the contributors in all cases for the interest which 
they have manifested. It was found difficult in a number of cases to 
decide upon the best, in the judgment of the judges. We believe, however, 
that those chosen will give satisfaction to our readers and to all concerned. 
One hundred and one pieces were submitted for the contest. The prizes 
will be given at the grand contest and concert, Tuesday evening, June 9, Salt 
Lake Tabernacle, at which we should be pleased to have all interested in 
attendance. 



191 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

Ex-Governor Mabey Chosen Grand Marshall 

Former Governor Charles R. Mabey was chosen Grand Marshal of the 
great M. I. A. parade to take place at the June Jubilee celebration. The 
fact was announced at a dinner given in the Hotel Utah attended by Com- 
mittee members and representatives from twenty-one surrounding stakes. 
Ex-Governor Mabey was introduced by General Chairman Melvin J. Ballard 
and amid great applause accepted the appointment in a felicitous speech in 
which he promised to do all in his power to make the parade a success. 
Twenty-one stakes were represented, from Cache stake on the north to Utah 
stake on the south. The program was in charge of Chairman Melvin J. 
Ballard and President Martha H. Tingey. The Pageant Committee was 
represented by W. O. Robinson; the Parade Committee, by Ann M. Cannon, 
John F. Bowman, George Q. Morris, Junius F. Wells, Mrs. Katie Jensen, 
and Oscar A. Kirkham, executive Director. Twelve bands have so far sig- 
nified their intention of entering the parade. Musical numbers were furnished 
by a male quartette from the General Y. M. M. I. A. Board. They sang, 
"Till the Vict'ry's Won," by B. Cecil Gates; and community singing was led 
by Claude C. Cornwall. 

Hillspring M Men Baseball Team 

This team with the manager H. G. Folsom has held the Alberta stake 
championship for the past three years, and has also defeated the Taylor 
stake championship. It has lost only a single game in its record of games 
for this period. This game they played by putting in a substitute pitcher. 
The enthusiasm of the boys is high and they are determined to bring the 
honor home again this year. 




Standing left to right: H. G. Folsom, manager; Walter Leishman, first base; 
Arnold Tanner, R.F. ; Kenneth Allred, S.S.; Willard Brooks, C. ; John Davis, 
Third base. Sitting: Myron Jackson, C.F.; Leo Leishman, second base 
(captain) ; Douglas Allred, C. ; Lorenzo Davis, L.F. — Leo Leishman, Captain. 



MUTUAL WORK 



793 



Cardston High School Basket Ball Team 

From Superintendent G. L. Woolf of the Alberta stake we learn that 
the efficiency report of 100% in that stake, after much hard work, went 
over with a "bang." The officers hope to maintain it if possible during 
the coming months, through special plans that the officers have arranged, 
one being to send a large delegation from Alberta to Salt Lake City in 
June. Another is a track meet on May 25 ; and another is a southern 
base ball league organized with eleven teams, in which the M. I. A. is taking 
the initiative. The picture represents the Cardston High School basket ball 
team, champions of Alberta for 1924 and '25. All these boys are M Men 
who attend M. I. A. and who keep the Word of Wisdom. This is our 
second year to hold the provincial championship. 



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CARDSTON HIGH SCHOOL BASKET BALL TEAM 

Jack row, left to right: E. Wynd;r, H. Lee, L. Parrish. Second row: J. Olson. 
J. W. Low, G. L. Woolf, F. Parrish. Front row: M. Low, L. Card. 



Oakland M. I. A. Banquet 

The Mutual Improvement Association of Oakland, California, at their 
banquet on March 20, 1925. John Larson is the newly elected president. 
There were fifty-four people in attendance. The decoration and arrange- 
ments gave a very charming atmosphere, augmented by six lovely Bee-Hive 
girls who acted as waitresses. Each guest was given a California poppy. 
Gumdrop teddy-bears, and ladies' dainty parasols, were used for place cards. 
The Relief Society acted as cooks and they gave a delicious feast long to be 



794 



IMPROVEMENT ERA 



remembered. During dinner a musical program was given, interspersed with 
speeches from leading officers present. The new president has excellent 
executive ability and the Oakland M. I. A. cannot fail to forge ahead. Votes 
of thanks were given to Sisters Lavina Grant, Edith Lindsay and Katherine 
Aiken who were responsible for the excellent decorations, the Relief Society 
who were the cooks, and the Bee-Hive girls who made such delightful 
waitresses. Following dinner the evening was spent in dancing, music being 
furnished by the M. I. A. orchestra. It was a delightful evening without a 
dull moment. May we have many more. — Lewis E. Rowe, Los Angeles, 
California. 



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M. I. A. BANQUET, OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 
First row, left to right: Miss Lindsay, Miss Olson, 1st counselor; Arvilla Daniels, 
2nd counselor; Lavina Grant, president Y. L. M. I. A.; Edna Philips, 
secretary; Lanor Tuttle, amusement; Marva McBride, Mrs. Lameraux, Mrs. 
Harris, Mrs. Ream. Mrs. C. Aiken, publicity agent. Second row: Miss 
Everett, Mrs. McKaig, counselor Relief Society; Martha Hunt, president 
Relief Society; Martha Fitzpatrick, Nellie MacDonald, Beth Kowallis, Charlotte 
Beman, Edith Lindsay, secretary; Mrs. Robinson. Mrs. Perkins, Mrs. Hall, Mrs. 
Ellis. Third row, standing: Ivy Richardson, Bee-Hive Girl; Wilson Perkins, Mr. 
Lindsay, Oscar Burquist, chorister; Albert Fitzpatrick, 1st assistant; Ward 
Hall, President Edmonds; President J. G. Larson, Reed Smith, amusement com- 
mittee; Mr. McBride, secretary; L. W. Lambert, Weldon Davis, Mr. Grant 
President Everett. Back row: Mr. C. Aiken, second assistant M. I. A.; W. D. 
Lameraux, Mrs. Sainsberry, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. Jones, Mrs. Rea, Douglas Ream, 
President Willard Ellis, Maurine Olson, Superintendent Robinson, Mr. Harris, 
Frank Parsons, branch chorister; Ward Hall. 

M. I. A. Reading Course, 1925-26 

Romantic Rise of a Great American, a biography of the life of John 
Wanamaker, by Conwell. Price, $2; by mail, $2.10. 

Forty Minute Plays from Shakespeare, by Fred Barker. Price, $ 1 ; by 
mail $1.10. 

Mother Mason, a novel, by Bess Streeter Aldrich. Price, $1.75; by 
maii $1.85. 

Life of Christ, by Papini. Price, $1.50; by mail, $1.60. 

The Gospel of Saint Matthew, from the Bible. 

Complete Reading Course, not including Bible, special cash price, $5.75. 

If charged, $6.25 plus postage. 



Y. M. M. I. A. Statistical Report, April, 1925 







■3 


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G5 


2 H 




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g E 
a 


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M » 

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S8 


S 


SS 


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STAKES 


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2 




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3 

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lis 

2 ■a 


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CO < 


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Orf 












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Bear River 


476 


12 


12 


91 


199 


160 


21 


124 


595 


60 


80 


85 




90 


315 


Benson 


758 


13 


13 


125 


140 


204 


115 


252 


836 


68 


42 


69 


37 


140 


356 


Box Elder 


786 


13 


13 


102 


300 


184 


32 


312 


930 


68 


130 


84 


17 


201 


500 


Cache 


520 


8 


8| 94 


55 


159 


276 




584 


60 


15 


70 




200 


345 


Cottonwood _ 


463 


10 


6 


78 


62 


195 




168 


503 


54 


15 


97 




116 


282 


Deseret — 


435 


12 


12 


96 


254 


129 


83 


138 


700 


68 


171 


80 


50 


97 


466 




906 


8 


7 


61 


167 


181 




939 


648 


49 


64 


104 




15? 


369 


Jordan - 


566 


16 


8 


74 


96 


113 




213 


496 


49 


45 


41 




95 


230 


Juab 


343 


H 


4 


40 


76 


97 




1 16 


329 


78 


38 


40 




40 


146 


Kanab — 


210 
608 


6 


6 


50 
1 17 


69 

no 


40 
716 




89 
766 


248 
719 














Logan 


75 


50 


1 in 




171 


406 


Millard 


570 


9 


7 


50 


100 


59 


121 




330 


28 


53 


44 


51 




176 


Mount Ogden 


613 


8 


8 


70 


135 


189 




219 


613 


56 


53 


92 




137 


338 


Nebo 


457 


9 


8 


68 


143 


134 


40 


171 


556 


47 


56 


59 


14 


107 


283 


North Davis 


451 


7 


3 


29 


47 


86 


17 


99 


278 


15 


10 


16 


8 


50 


99 


North Sanpete 


730 


10 


8 


81 


147 


166 


39 


292 


725 


60 


40 


79 


30 


100 


309 


North Sevier 


265 


6 


4 


27 


52 


53 


16 


40 


188 


16 


27 


26 


12 


28 


109 


North Weber 


713 


17 


12 


89 


65 


190 




189 


533 


67 


15 


68 


15 


106 


271 


Ogden 


794 


1(1 


10 


103 


174 


780 




300 


857 


75 


45 


108 




144 


377 


Oquirrh 


420 


5 


5 


55 


61 


94 


45 


172 


427 


45 


23 


28 


13 


93 


202 


Pa rowan 


463 


8 


6 


48 


161 


112 


44 


98 


463 


27 


63 


41 


27 


62 


220 




777 
1063 


10 

12 


10 
12 


99 

140 


93 
161 


222 
230 


78 

128 


214 
368 


733 
1000 


76 
107 


29 
67 


92 
105 


36 
69 


133 

222 


366 


Salt Lake 


570 


San Juan . . 


199 


4 


2 


37 


58 


64 


21 


83 


268 


20 


32 


32 


11 


33 


128 




353 
503 


6 

8 


6 
8 


51 

80 


84 
106 


104 
128 


12 
23 


139 

255 


390 
592 


27 
69 


42 
67 


55 
91 


10 
15 


103 
153 


737 


South Davis _ 


395 


South Sevier _. 


285 


8 


6 


45 


67 


46 


10 


74 


242 


25 


35 


15 


6 


33 


114 




254 
420 

407 


5 
9 
9 


4 
6 

8 


30 
29 

57 


76 
86 
94 


34 
45 
94 


3 
18 


102 

57 

129 


245 
235 
3 74 


21 
21 
39 


47 
31 
43 


21 
22 
59 


3 
5 


47 
42 
71 


13Q 




1?1 


Uintah 


212 




649 

363 


8 
11 


8 
10 


76 
66 


127 
78 


169 
110 


82 
148 


187 


641 
402 


49 
50 


36 
50 


53 
61 


18 
81 


98 


754 


Bear Lake 


242 


Blackfoot 


514 


12 


12 


88 


169 


119 


10 


127 


513 


58 


85 


58 


5 


81 


587 


Burley 


305 


9 


9 


7? 


131 


88 


14 


179 


434 


53 


7? 


39 


6 


69 


739 


Franklin 


420 


11 


11 


96 


140 


153 




265 


654 


65 


60 


77 




140 


342 


Fremont 


687 


13 


10 


122 


244 


261 


139 


157 


923 


58 


63 


71 




95 


287 




169 
120 


8 
4 


7 
2 


50 
26 


82 
40 


30 
46 




44 

42 


206 
154 


32 
8 


40 
13 


9 
6 




16 
6 


97 


Lost River 


33 


Malad 


329 
223 


8 
8 


5 
8 


43 
65 


61 
93 


71 
73 


10 


96 
77 


271 
318 


31 
53 


47 
39 


47 
39 


2 


58 
42 


183 


Minidoka 


175 




354 
473 


11 
10 


11 
10 


85 

101 


128 
97 


91 

134 


27 
36 


122 
143 


453 
511 


48 
75 


60 
50 


49 
62 


12 
25 


86 
85 


755 


Pocatello 


297 




535 
323 
290 
192 


13 
9 
7 

7 


13 
7 
4 
7 


115 
63 
25 
48 


132 
97 
28 
87 


127 
68 

46 


36 
36 
15 


129 
52 
22 
56 


539 

316 

90 

237 


72 
44 
2'2 
35 


74 
55 
26 
57 


67 
38 

28 


28 
27 
14 


78 
12 
22 
59 


319 




176 




84 


Twin Falls 


179 


Yellowstone „ 


335 


9 


9 


62 


109 


90 




98 


359 


47 


71 


54 




43 


215 


Alberta 


351 
340 


11 
7 


11 


90 
13 


135 
97 


165 


30 


170 
17 


590 

127 


62 


82 


99 


9 


109 


361 


Big Horn 
Lethbridge ._. 




236 


9 


8 


72 


74 


64 


20 


74 


304 


47 


40 


44 


10 


73 


184 


Maricopa 


361 


8 


8 


65 


127 


81 


25 


113 


411 


56 


85 


58 


20 


72 


291 


Star Valley _ 


352 


11 


11 


90 


45 


75 


19 


96 


325 


65 


36 


67 


15 


83 


266 


Woodruff 


435 


8 


8 


72 


161 


135 


18 


139 


525 


60 


93 


70 


13 


80 


316 




85 

707 


4 
30 


3 
15 


22 
108 


33 
115 


47 
163 


34 
71 




136 

457 


15 

79 


16 
76 


30 
126 


20 
46 




81 


Calif. Mission 


327 


N. W. States 


1 200 


16 


14 


82 


139 


44 


8 


39 


312 


68 


92 


33 


5 


36 


2.34 



Y. M. M. I. A. Efficiency Report, April, 1925 



STAKES 


I 

J3 


© 


s 


M 

o 

3 


a 
S 


© 
55 


*«3 


•a 


1 a 
s "is 

Sag 

>>S3 




3 

a 
H 




a 




cc 


o 
03 










SO 


S3 




Bear River 


10 


5 


10 


10 1 10 


10 


10 


9 


8 


6 


88 


Benson 


10 


4 


9 


8 8 


10 
10 J 


10 
10 


9 
10 


9 
10 


8 
10 


85 
89 


Box Elder 


10 


5 


10 1 


8 6 1 


Cache _ 


10 


5 


10 1 


10 10 1 


10 


10 


10 j 


8 


10 


93 


Cottonwood 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


9 


94 


Deseret _ 


10 


10 


8 


10 


6 


10 


10 
10 


10 
8 


9 
10 


8 
10 


91 
91 


Ensign 


7 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Jordan -— 


9 


5 


5 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


52 


Juab 


9 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


7 


9 


90 


Kanab 


10 


6 


10 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


92 


Logan 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


10 


9 


93 


Millard 


6 


5 


6 


10 


7 


10 


10 


8 


9 


10 


81 
96 


Mount Ogden _ 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Nebo _ 


10 


5 


7 


7 


4 


9 


3 


5 


8 


9 


67 


North Davis „ 


6 


4 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


90 


North Sanpete _ 


10 


4 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


6 


5 


85 


North Sevier _ 


8 


5 


8 


10 


4 


9 


7 


5 


7 


4 


67 


North Weber __ 


7 


5 


10 


9 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


89 


Ogden 


10 


4 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


96 


Oquirrh — 


10 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


95 


Parowan 


10 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


7 


5 


85 


Pioneer ___ __ - - 


9 


5 


10 


10 


9 


10 


9 


8 


10 


9 


89 


Salt Lake 


10 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


95 


San Juan _ 


10 


6 


5 


10 


3 


5 


10 


7 


5 


3 


64 


Sevier 


10 


6 


10 


7 


10 


10 


10 


10 


5 


8 


86 


South Davis 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


100 


South Sevier 


9 


5 


6 


8 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


6 


69 


Tintic 


5 


6 


8 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


77 


Tooele _ - 


6 


5 


6 


1 


1 


6 


3 


6 


4 


2 


40 


Uintah „_ 


9 


6 


10 


7 


10 


6 


10 


9 


7 


6 


80 


Weber 


10 


6 


10 


8 


8 


10 


9 


9 


10 


10 


90 


Bear Lake _ 


10 


6 


8 


8 


4 


9 


8 


7 


7 


9 


76 


Blackfoot 


10 


6 


10 


5 


7 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


87 


Burley 


10 


6 


10 


6 


8 


10 


10 


9 


9 


8 


86 


Franklin 


10 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


95 


Fremont 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


8 


93 


Idaho 


10 


5 


8 


10 


5 


8 


9 


10 


10 


8 


83 


Lost River 


10 


3 


5 


5 


2 


5 


4 


5 


3 


5 


47 


Malad 


8 

10 


10 
6 


10 
8 


10 
6 


10 
9 


10 
10 


10 
9 


10 
10 


10 
9 


10 
7 


98 


Minidoka 


84 


Oneida 


10 
10 


6 
6 


10 
10 


10 
10 


10 
10 


10 
10 


9 

10 


10 
10 


10 
10 


10 
9 


95 


Pocatello 


95 


Rigby 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


94 


Shelley 


10 


5 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


77 


Teton - 


3 
10 


10 
10 


4 
10 


7 


8 

7 


3 
10 


6 
10 


10 
8 


10 
10 


5 

8 


59 


Twin Falls 


90 


Yellowstone 


10 


6 


10 


9 


9 


10 


10 


8 


10 


10 


92 


Alberta 


10 

4 


6 
3 


10 
3 


10 

10 


10 
10 


10 
3 


10 
10 


10 
10 


10 
3 


10 
3 


96 


Big Horn 


59 


Lethbridge 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


96 


Maricopa 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


100 


Star Valley 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


4 


6 


89 


Woodruff 


10 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


6 


10 


92 


Young _ 


10 
5 


6 
10 


10 

I 5 


— 


7 

1 


7 
5 


8 
4 


8 
4 


10 

1 


7 

4 


73 


Calif. Mission __ 


39 


N. W. States _ 


10 


10 


! 8 


3 


1 


10 


8 


8 




9 


67 



The National Woman Suffrage Association formally ended its existence, 
April 23, at a meeting held in Washington. Mrs. Catt presided at the 
function. The organization has been active for nearly 75 years. 

Miss Amy Lowell, the poetess, died suddenly, at her home in Brookline, 
Mass., May 12, of a paralytic stroke. Miss Lowell was taken ill suddenly 
at her home on April 1 1 , and was obliged to cancel a projected trip to 
Europe. 

Fight on the anti-evolution law in Tennessee has been started. J. T. 
Scoaps, a school teacher, was arrested at Dayton May 6, for teaching that 
hypothesis to his biology class. The arrest was made to test the new state 
law. Scoaps will be tried Saturday before Squire Benson, Dayton's 
justice of the peace. As a conviction is likely, arrangements are being made 
for appeal, with a view to carrying the case to the supreme court of the 
United States if necessary. 

Europe must solve its problems and establish peace. That was the burden 
of the address made by the new American ambassador in London, Alanson 
B. Houghton, at the Dinner of the Pilgrims, May 4. The speech is 
regarded as the most important made on behalf of the United States in 
many years. The speaker said plainly that the United States wanted a settle- 
ment of Europe's vexing problems, and that unless peace were established 
in Europe he feared the part the United States has previously played as 
an interested and sympathetic participant, "might give way to a lesser role." 
This may be understood as a warning to Hindenburg that a military policy 
does not at present suit our country. 

The new French ministry is sustained by the Chamber, after a stormy 
debate. The government, which is designated as the Painleve-Briand-Cail- 
laux cabinet, declared for "a highly qualified representative," of the Vatican 
and apparently repudiated the idea of General Nollet, the former war minister, 
for shorter military service and a sort of army reorganization, which Marshal 
Foch is understood to have opposed. It promised peace to the Catholics 
and less friction with Alsace-Lorraine and committed itself to efforts to 
settle the interallied debts in connection with execution of the Dawes repara- 
tions plan. M. Herriot's peace program based on the Geneva protocol was 
adopted without change. 

President-elect Paul von Hindenburg made his triumphal entry into 
Berlin on May 1 1 , surrounded by thousands of policemen on horseback, in 
airplanes, on motorcycles and on foot. It is said that there were 16,000 of 
them, to guard against possible dangers. "Everywhere," the story runs, 
"cheers rolled along the avenue, while police cordons wrestled with the 
seething masses." Order was maintained until the president had passed. Then 
the police chains were broken and the crowds rushed forward. More than 
a score of men and women fainted in the crush and the Red Cross sections 
had to jump into the fray. Nearly a score were hurt and about fifty were 
arrested for disobeying police orders. The entrance is regarded as a demonstra- 
tion by the nationalist party, under police protection. 

Ninety-one firemen resigned April 16, from their positions in the Salt 
Lake City fire department, as a protest against the apparent refusal of the 
City commission to fire the chief, as demanded by the men. Delmar Lambert, 
chairman of the grievance committee, said it was two weeks since the hearing 



798 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

was ended, but that no action was taken by the commission. The men had, 
therefore, no other recourse than to resign. On the 18th, Chief Bywater 
resigned, and was given a two months' vacation with full pay, Assistant 
Chief Walter S. Knight was appointed his successor. The men then notified 
the commission that all must be reinstated, or none would go back to work, 
whereupon all were relieved from duty and the stations recruited from other 
City departments. The controversy ended with the reinstatement of most 
of the men. 

King Boris of Bulgaria was assaulted, April 14, while riding in an 
automobile, and had a narrow escape from death. One attendant was 
killed and another seriously wounded. The king, after his escape mobolized 
a platoon of troops and pursued the assailants. On April 16a bomb 
was exploded in the cathedral at Sofia, the capitol of Bulgaria, causing death 
and destruction. The members of the cabinet, hundreds of leading political 
personalities and citizens and many military officers were assembled at the 
funeral of General Georghieff, who was assassinated in the streets of Sofia, 
on April 14. The number of dead are reported to be 140, and many were 
injured. None of the ministers was killed, although several were wounded. 
It is the general belief that this outrage, the attack on King Boris and the 
murder of General Georghieff constitute an attempt to provoke a communist 
revolution. 

Why Chick Losses? — The enormous loss of young chicks every spring 
seems to be taken as a legitimate part of the business, but is that position 
warranted? Professor Byron Alder of the Agricultural College says, "The 
heavy loss during the brooding period is usually due to poor care or im- 
proper feeding." In a circular entitled, Brooding and Feeding Chicks, 
he discusses the type of chicks to get; brooding house equipment, arrange- 
ment and temperature, feeds and methods of feeding, cannibalism, leg weak- 
ness, mites, lice, and many other things that the successful poultrymen must 
know. In a separate publication entitled Feeding for Egg Production, he 
gives feed rations and other valuable suggestions for securing high egg 
production. Both of these publications may be obtained free of charge by 
applying to the Agricultural College Experiment Station, at Logan, or to your 
county extension agent. 

Three new comets have been discovered this year, according to a report 
from the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago, dated April 17. 
They are named 1925-A, B and C. A was discovered by a young Russian 
astronomer, G. Shajn, at the observatory at Semeis in the Crimea on March 
23. Its brightness was about equal to that of a star 100 times fainter than 
can be seen with the naked eye. It has moved slowly westward in the 
constellations Virgo and Leo. The second comet, known as B, was 
discovered by an amateur, William Reid of Rodebosch, near Capetown, 
South Africa. The first observation to reach this country was made on 
March 24 when the comet was in the constellation Hydra It moves toward 
the southwest at the rate of one-fourth of a degree per day. It is about the 
eighth magnitude but should be visible in a good field glass. Comet C, was 
announced by cable on April 4 and the name of the discoverer was given as 
Orkisz. The comet is in the constellation Pegasus and moving northward 
slightly more than one degree a day. It is of about the eighth magnitude or 
slightly brighter. 

Miss Susan Anna Lynch, a prominent worker in the Genealogical 
Society, passed away, April 26, at the home of her aunt, Mrs. Stephen W. 
Ally, Salt Lake City. Miss Lynch was a teacher in the public schools for 
several years, and maintained a great interest in children. She was a 
capable writer, particularly of children's stories, and was always interested 
in the progress of current events. She was appointed assistant secretary 



PASSING EVENTS 799 

and reporter of the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers by Susa Young Gates, 
then president of the organization, and in 1906 assumed the office of 
secretary, which position she filled until 1909. In the interest of genealogy 
Miss Lynch made four trips east, working in libraries in large eastern cities, 
and upon invitation became a member of the New England Genealogical 
Society, Boston, and the Philadelphia Genealogical Society. She did much 
research work in the Congressional library at Washington. She conducted 
classes as Liberty stake representative of the Utah Society. She was related 
to President Brigham Young and to President Daniel H. Wells. Surviving 
is her only brother, Stephen H. Lynch, of Salt Lake. 

Aden Claron Nelson lost his life, May 10, when the airplane in which 
he was making a trip fell to the ground from a height of 150 feet. With him 
were Grant Christensen and Russell De Loge, two lads 1 5 years old. A 
strong west wind was blowing, and the machine side-slipped, went into a 
tailspin, and then crashed to the ground, where it burst into flames. The 
unconscious pilot and boy passengers were so badly burned that identification 
of the charred bodies was difficult. Mr. Nelson's chief interest was 
in aviation. He enlisted in April, 1917, as a private and was transferred 
to the air service in August, 1917. He was commissioned and went 
through all the courses of instruction in the air service. He was at Hoboken, 
N. J., with overseas sailing orders when the armistice was signed. After 
leaving active service, Mr. Nelson joined the air mail service and a year 
after that time had advanced to the assistant superintendency of the western 
division. Six months later he became superintendent and continued in that 
capacity to August, 1924, when he resigned to enter the insurance business. 
Mr. Nelson was first lieutenant in the 325th observation squadron, United 
States reserve corps. He was an active supporter of aviation and as a member 
of the board of governors of the United States Aeronautical association 
served as governor for the Pacific Coast states. This association was 
organized to promote interest in aviation. 

Grant Christensen was the son of Mr. and Mrs. L. P. Christensen of 
Brigham City. His mother died when he was a baby and his father's death 
occurred about a year ago. The boy was living here with his sister and 
was a student at the West junior high school. 

Russel De Loge was the oldest of the seven children of Mr. and Mrs. 
William J. De Loge. His father is an engineer on the Oregon Short Line 
railroad, and was just preparing to go out on his run when notified that 
it was believed his son had been killed. Russel was born in Altena, Mich., 
and moved to Pocatello, Idaho, with his parents nearly five years ago. The 
family came to Salt Lake about eight or nine months ago. 

Photography across the ocean is now an accomplished fact. On May 
7, and ordinary photographic negative was transferred by a photoradio- 
graphic machine from Honolulu to New York, and printed there, all in 
twenty minutes. No human hand intervened in the process. It was all 
done by the machine, although four relays were necessary. The radio 
photographic machine at Honolulu, sent its light beam varying of dots, 
dashes and spaces on the first lap of their journey, twenty-nine miles by 
telegraph wire to the high power radio transmitting apparatus at Kahuku, 
island of Oahu. Automatically the wire currents were changed to radio 
waves for a 23 72-mile leap across the eastern Pacific to a receiving station 
at Marshall, Calif., which turned them again into telegraphic currents for a 
nineteen-mile relay to the transmitting station at Bolinas, Calif., where once 
more the Kahuku process was repeated to dispatch the picture until its 
trans-continental leap of 2640 miles to the radio receiving station at River 
Head, L. I., was finished. Into wire current once more, and the pictures were 
delivered at the offices of the Radio Corporation, Broad Street, New York. 



800 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

The apparatus which began the process in Honolulu was a portable machine 
sent last month from New York in charge of Alfred E. Koenig, 20-year-old 
wireless expert, who four years ago was an office boy in the New York offices 
of the corporation. 

Saltair was destroyed by fire, April 22. The flames originated in a 
concession called the Ali Baba Cave, at the southern end of the Pavilion, about 
2:20 p. m. Employes, workmen, concessionaries and volunteers from the 
Crystal Salt Company, augmented in due time by contingents from the 
Salt Lake City and county fire departments fought the flames, but the 
destroying element, aided by a strong, shifting wind, prevailed at last. Concern- 
ing the origin of the fire L. S. Peterson, an employee of the Great Salt Lake 
Amusement Co., operators of the concession, states that he was working on 
a motor in the workroom of the concession near the entrance to the cave, 
when he smelled smoke. He went out onto the pavilion to ascertain the 
origin of the odor and discerned a wisp of smoke emerging from the ceiling 
of the cave. Running down the right-hand leg of the tunnel, Peterson began 
exploring its 700-foot length for the source of the smoke. He had traversed 
nearly two-thirds of the distance, had rounded the tunnel bend and was 
outward bound when he encountered a wall of flame about four feet wide and 
running the height of the cave. Soon the blaze spread to the Hippodrome, then 
to the Ship Cafe, and finally to the Pavilion, and in short time all that remain- 
ed of the buildings on the platform of the famous resort were charred timbers 
and twisted iron beams. The damage is estimated at $250,000. It is under- 
stood that the control of the resort has the last two years been in the hands of 
the Zion's Savings Bank and Trust Co. There is now some talk of turning the 
resort over to Salt Lake City. 



Seek the Good 

There is a way, we sure will find, to everything that's good, and if 
we set our strength and mind on it, as e'er we should, we will attain the 
goal we seek, in some bright future day; and) if we're always good, and 
meek, we'll never need to stray. There is a path to truth and right, and 
yet, there's only one. The path of knowledge and of light, to travel, you've 
begun. And still, the devious ways of men, invented oft for pleasure, will 
hardly set you right again, until you pay full measure. The joyless mirth 
of youth and age, is sad indeed, to hear — but is a lesson from the Sage, 
to guide our footsteps clear of wreckage in the path of life, that guiles us 
to the shore, and tosses us into the strife, to hold us evermore. So heed 
the warning, gentle friend, I give to you this day, and never tamper with 
or mend, the straight and narrow way. For God above has set the stakes, 
and tells you what is good, and if you try, you'll make mistakes, that won't 
be understood. The best and only way to Heaven is to go ahead and do 
the thing that's set for you, and leave at once your bed of idleness and pity, 
and remorse and sorrow too, and do the work that's in the course, and 
smile if you are blue. I tell you it's the works that count, as well as faith 
and prayer, and if you want a large amount, you'll have to do your share. 
There's nothing gained in shifting loads to other fellows' backs, or traveling 
forbidden roads, to 'scape the heavy packs. Perhaps sometime you'll under- 
stand, when life is almost through and then you'll see the valiant stand, 
that marks a man as true. So while you have the courage left, and strength 
of soul and mind, be sure you follow in the cleft, and leave the rest behind. — 

WESTON N. NORDGRAN. 
Monroe, Utah. 



"The Improvement Era is a great help in our missionary work. We 
are grateful for it." — Ora S. Poulsen, Vancouver, B. C. 

One of our most interested and intelligent investigators here has ex- 
pressed his liking for the Era by saying that it is without doubt the best 
magazine of its kind he has ever come in contact with. With best wishes 
for the continued success of the good work of the Era, I remain sincerely 
your brother, — Rulon H. Tingey, mission secretary, Auckland, New 
Zealand. 



IMPROVEMENT ERA, JUNE, 1925 

Two Dollars per Annum 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1 103, Act of 

October 3, 1917 , authorized on July 2, 1918 

Hcber J. Grant. ) E ,. Melvin J. Ballard, Business Mgr. 

Edward H. Anderson, \ Moroni Snow, Assistant. 

CONTENTS 

Portrait of President Brigham Young — Frontispiece 

Old Lovers. A Poem. — E Nesbit 711 

Historical Sketch of the Y. M. M. I. A. — First 

Period. Illustrated Junius F. Wells 713 

Dad. A Poem — Ora Haven Barlow 729 

M. I. A. in Music Prof. Evan Stephens 730 

The Heritage and Promise. Part II — VII John Henry Evans 733 

The Storm. A Poem.- — A Henderson 736 

The Original Y. M. M. I. A., Thirteenth Ward 

Salt Lake City. Illustrated Junius F. Wells 737 

An Appreciation. A Poem — Maud B. Rasmussen 740 

Preserving the Lore of the Utes. Illustrated Prof. H. R. Merrill 741 

President Grant's Visit in the South Charles A. Callis 746 

Racing With Fire. A Story W. E. Langtry 747 

The Smoker. A Poem_ — James D. Todd 749 

Heroes of Science — Edison — — F. S. Harris and N. I. Butt 750 

Fountains of Happiness. A Poem Annie G. Lauritzen 752 

Y. M. M. I. A. Publications Preston Nibley 753 

A Real Man. A Poem — Eugene L. Morrill — 758 

What They Say — - 759 

Assurance. A Poem Ivy Williams Stone 761 

A New Member, First Council of Seventy. With 

Portrait — 762 

Know What You are Boosting.—.- p ro f. Thomas L. Martin 765 

Messages from the Missions. Illustrated , 767 

The Passing of President Charles William Penrose 

With Portrait 779 

My Baby. A Poem — Joseph L. Townsend 780 

Editors' Table — Our Jubilee — _ t — 78 1 

"Unanswered Yet" — 782 

The Motive in Education . 783 

From Darkness to Light. A Poem Lewis A. Lee 784 

Priesthood Quorums — Youthful Ward Teachers ...J. Burt Sumsion 785 

The Vile Cigarette. A Poem C. H. Davis 787 

Mutual Work — - 788 

Passing Events — , — 797 

Seek the Good — Weston N. Nordgran 800 



Advertising Policy of the Era 

We accept only the highest class of advertising. We recommend to our 
readers the firms and goods found in our advertising pages. 



ADVERTISERS 

Becco 

Beesley Music Company- 
Beneficial Life Ins. Co. 
Bennett's Service Stations 
Co-op Furniture Company 
Deseret Book Company 
Deseret News 
Dinwoodey Furniture Co. 



IN THIS ISSUE 
Intermountain Life Ins. Co. 
L. D. S. Business College 
Model Knitting Works 
Salt Lake Knitting Store 
Southern Pacific Lines 
Jos. Wm. Taylor, Undertaker 
Utah Home Fire Ins. Co. 
Zion's Co-operative Mctle. Inst. 




Special Summer Excursion 
Round Trip Fares 



From Salt Lake City or Ogden 

TO 



Los Angeles 



VIA 



San Francisco 



42 



60 



Porportionately reduced fares from all other points in Utah, Idaho and 

Montana. On sale daily. May 15th to September 30th inclusive. 

Final return limit October 31st. 

Stop-overs allowed all intermediate points on SOUTHERN 
PACIFIC LINES going and returning 

For full information call or 'phone 

P. BANCROFT, General Agent 

41 South Main Street 

Wasatch 3008 Wasatch 3078 



A Cheerful Friend 



Do you love that little birdie 
That sings in bush and tree 

To make the sun shine brighter 

And the day more glad and free? 

It sings because it's near you, 
It feels your tender smile, 

It always tries to cheer you 

And make your life worth while. 

Magrath, Aha., Canada 



Oh, it sings of life so cheerful ; 

Its song is kind and true; 
And when you long for mem'ries — 

It brings them back to you. 

So don't throw stones nor frighten 

This cheerful friend away, 
And you will find him singing — 

When the world seems dark and gray. 



Joseph William Reece 
when writing to advertisers, please mention the improvement era 



DINWOODEY'S 

The Oldest Continuous Business in Utah 

The furniture, the store, the organization are all ready, and fully 
prepared to render its patrons a broader, more valuable service 
than ever. The store is filled with the most complete and varied 
display of exceptional merchandise we have ever assembled. 
Reserved stocks crowd our warehouse to overflowing. No mat- 
ter where you live, or what your home furnishing requirements 
may be, we are prepared to serve you, and at prices much lower 
than you would expect to pay. 

ESTABLISHED 1857 

DINWOODEY'S 

"GOOD FURNITURE " 

Remember you always pay less at Dinwoodey's 




Service 

Although I've lived my three score years and ten 
I cannot idly wait life's laggard flight — 
I feel an urge to serve my fellow men 

I cannot rest content to merely live 
Life's saddle waits, I yet may mount and ride — 
There is no joy except for those who give, 
So let me serve, till elsewhere I abide. 
Ogden, Utah. IVY WILLIAMS STONE. 



June Contest Music 

"0 My Father." New setting for solo high or low voice "Mor- 
mon" hymns for your talking machine as selected and approved 
by the General Church Committee. 

BEESLEY MUSIC CO. 

57 SO. MAIN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



WHEN WRITING TO ADVERTISERS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Be a Diamond Jubilee Subscriber to 

Stye irsmt M>ws 

75 years of continued service — since June 15, 1850 

$7.00 a year when paid in advance 

Send in your subscription today 

The DESERET NEWS Salt Lake City, Utah 



Thought of a Missionary 



Here I sit a wandering "stranger," 
Sort 'a homesick in a way 
Gazing at the glowing embers, 
As they twinkle, crackle and obey 
The fundamental law of nature, 
"Matter may change in form, but 
Cannot be destroyed." 
Though the coal may turn to ashes 
And the curling smoke ascend 

Manchester, England 



There still remains the debris 
As proof that even coal does rend 
Service before exhausted. 
And likewise I may, too, 
Give the best within me, 
So when I am but debris 
They may gaze with pride upon me 
And pleasantly remark and say, 
"There lies proof of service rendered 
in his day." 

James K. Knudson 



BETTER FOOD 
FOR LESS MONEY 

FOOD that makes every meal a delight — with its natural 
juices, the mineral salts retained, acids, starches and 
sugars unimpaired in their values — such food builds health. 

The Electric Range gives you such cooking. 

The economy of electric cooking is an outstanding feature 
— the average monthly bill of our 6605 range users over a 
period of 12 months is $2.86! 

A model to fit every need 
$5 down — balance monthly 

Utah Power & Light Co. 

Efficient Public Service 



M HEX WRITING TO ADVERTISERS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Latter-day Saints Garments 

APPROVED CORRECTION PATTERN 
Prepaid Parcel Post to any part of the United States if paid in ad- 
vance, 20c, extra on each garment to Canada or Mexico. 

These approved Temple Garments are knitted and made right here in 
our own Utah factory, to your special order and measurements. Lowest 
prices on market. Mail your order to us now and say you saw it in the 
"Improvement Era." If order is C. O. D. you pay the postage. 

LOOK FOR THE APPROVED LABEL IN EVERY GARMENT 

No. Price 

4 Light Summer weight bleached $1.49 

11 Light weight cotton 1.50 

20 Light weight cotton bleached 1.75 

60 Medium weight cotton 1.75 

22 Medium weight cotton bleached _ 2.00 

90 Heavy weight cotton unbleached 2.25 

24 Heavy weight cotton bleached „ 2.50 

50 Extra white double bleached, mercerized _ 3.00 

10 Medium weight wool mixture 3.00 

16 Heavy weight wool mixture 4.00 

70 Snow white silkalene _ 3.40 

18 All Marino wool 5.50 

Sizes from 22 to 44 bust, 52 to 64 lengths, as desired. Longer than 64 
inches or over 44 in. bust, each size 20c. extra. Garments with double 
backs 25c. extra per suit. We will make any size desired. 

Measure bust around body under arms; length from center on top of 
shoulder down to inside of ankle. Orders for less than two garments not 

3. C C ©T) t £ tl 

If "Modified Style," short sleeves, low neck, buttons etc., is wanted, so state 
and add 25c. per suit to above prices, or regular Garment will be sent to you. 

MODEL KNITTING WORKS 

FRANKLIN CHRISTIANSON, Manager 
657 Iverson St., Salt Lake City, Utah. Phone Hy. 516 



Spring Is Here 



Spring is here, o-chee, o-cheer, 
Spring with all its fresh, moist air. 
Bubbling streamlets, birds on wing 
Lovely birdies, sing, oh, sing! 

Spring is here, o-chee, o-cheer 
Can't you see it, feel it, hear? 
Robin pipes it chirp, chirp, chee! 
And the blackbirds chick-a-dee. 
Meadowlark — oh, hear him near, 
He'll just tell you Spring is here! 



Spring is here, o-chee, o-cheer 
See there's pussy willows near. 
Melting snow banks drip and crack. 
Oh, the flowers will soon be back! 
Listen, listen, can't you hear? 
Spring is here, o-chec, o-cheer! 

Spring is here, o-chee, o-cheer! 
Cr-ee, cr-ee, cr-eer, cr-eer, 
Stop and listen! Did you hear 
That messenger in skies so clear? 
Kil-deer, kil'deer, kil'deer, kil'deer 
Oh, happy be! the Spring is here! 

Jennie T. Swainston. 



Work and earn. Have a bank account. Carry life insurance. 



THERE IS NO TOP 

No man or woman ever reaches his limits of progress, though many stagnate 
for want of effort. Are you in a rut? Are you standing by while the world 
moves forward. Wake yourself. Get into day school or evening school and 
do some regular study. Make ready for opportunity. 

Our Summer Session Begins June 1 

L. D. S. BUSINESS COLLEGE 

WE ARE IN SESSION ALL THE YEAR 
DAY AND EVENING 



WHEN WRITING TO ADVERTISERS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



«ECCO 



Refreshing 
and Nourishing 

l\^f ADE from wholesome 
■*■▼>*■ cereals and purest wa- 
ter, Becco is as nourishing 
as it is delicious. 

SERVE BECCO COLD 

EVERYBOY LIKES ITS 
SPARKLING FLAVOR 

Becker Products Co. 

OGDEN, UTAH 



Meditation 

Oh, rugged hills of ghostly gray, 
Why did I roam to you today? 
Was it to feel your spirit true, 
To help me start my life anew? 

Or was it just to spend my time 
In pleasure, seeking joy sublime? 
Me thinks it was to feel your power, 
And shroud it round me one short hour. 

The inspirations you have brought, 
Within my heart has wonders wrought, 
Has calmed my troubled spirit's voice, 
And made my heart with love lejoice. 

I know now why I came to thee: 

It was to seek humility, 

It was to find deep solace here, 

And learn God's wonders to revere. 

Bloomington, Utah. JENNIE EMPEY. 



W. JV. WILLIAMS, 
President 



CLARISSA S. WILLIAMS, 
Vice-President 



Over 40 years of honest merchandising has gained the Co-op Furniture 
Company an enviable reputation. You can depend on the furniture and 
rugs purchased from us to be the utmost in quality and our prices are 
always the lowest and our selection is always the finest and best in Utah. 

This Beautiful 3-Piece Mohav Living Room Suite, Special Price, $320.00 




CO-OP FURNITURE CO. 

33 SOUTH MAIN ST. 



WHEN WRITING TO ADVERTISERS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



Here's the New 

M. I. A. Reading Course 

The reading course is announced. Call in and see these delightful 
volumes. Take home the complete set as trophies of the Jubilee. 

THE TITLES 

"Life of Christ", Papini $1.5t 

"Mother Mason", Aldrich 1.7J 

"Romantic Rise of a Great American", Life of John 

Wanamaker, Conwell 2.90 

"Forty Minute Plays from Shakespeare", Barker l.et 

(Add 10c for postage for each volume) 

Complete set — special cash price — delivered $1.75 

Complete set— if charged to Ward. _ «.25 

Book of St Mathew also included in Reading Course — order separately 
—New Testament from 40c, SOc, 75c, $1.00 up 

Deseret Book Company 

44 EAST SOUTH TEMPLE, SALT LAKE 



Integrity Inspires Confidence 

JOSEPH WILLIAM TAYLOR 

Utah's Leading Undertaker and Licensed Embalmer 

21-25 SOUTH WEST TEMPLE 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

Phones: Wasatch 7600 
Both Office and Residence 

My Servisa has the Little Marks «f Difference that Make it Distinctive 



Fire Is No Respecter of Persons 

You may wait till tomorrow to insure — 

but the fire may not. 

"See our agent in your town" 

UTAH HOME FIRE INSURANCE CO. 

HEBER J. GRANT & CO., General Agents, Salt Lake City, Utah 



WHEN WRITING TO ADVBRTIS3RS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA 



TRY OUR NEW GASOLINE 

BLU-GREEN 

BOYCE-ITE Blu-Green gasoline is the only carbonless fuel in America 
today. Wherever you see Bennett's Boyce-ite treated gasoline featured b© 
sure it is Blu-Green in color — or don't accept it. 

BENNETT'S SERVICE STATIONS 



Z. C. M. I. FAOTORY-MADE 

KIDDIES' 

ALLOVERS 

Dutch Cut 

Tkey are the fan»- 
o u « Mountaineer 
Brand in dark blue, 
liffkt blue, stripes 
nnd khaki. MOTH- 
ERS, they are Jiwt 
what yon need for 
the little tot. 

ASK YOUR DEALERS FOR THEM 




Z. C. M. I. FACTORY-MADE 

Overalls 

The WAIST 
OVERALL 

For Youths — made of 8 
or 9 oz. Denim, copper 
riveted, with yellow 
stitching — it is quite 
popular with Junior 
High School Students. 

Ask your dealer for 
them. 





Our efforts are being put forth to make this 
year the banner year in the history of 



I Vhe BIG HOME COMPANY 



YOU NEED OUR INSURANCE 

WE WANT YOUR BUSINESS 

Beneficial Life Insurance Co. 

Home Office, Vermont Bldg. — Salt Lak« 
Heber J. Grant, Pres. Lorenzo N. StohL, Mgr. 



WHEN WRITING TO ADVERTISERS, PLEASE MENTION THE IMPROVEMENT ERA